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Heavy Element

(Last edited: Thursday, 31 August 2023, 5:16 PM)
Image/Video/Audio: Image: Periodical Table Image/Video/Audio Source:

Image/Video/Audio: Image: Periodical Table Image/Video/Audio Source:

Short Definition:

Heavy elements are the general name for elements containing atomic numbers greater than 92. Above these, elements with atomic numbers 112 and above are called superheavy elements. The state that creates the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the element.

Detailed Definition:

Heavy elements, which are determined by the number of protons in the nucleus of the element (this called atomic number) are elements with atomic number greater than 92. One row above them there is superheavy elements with atomic numbers greater than 112. The first artificially produced heavy and superheavy elements were first produced during the Cyclotron experiments.

One of the most important issues about heavy elements is the concept of 'island of stability'. This concept refers to the region in the table of nucleides where elements with half-lives longer than some other super heavy elements are found. However, it should be noted that we are ona narrow time scale, from minutes to micro/nano seconds at most. The term was first coined in 1998 with the discovery of the super heavy element 114 (Flerovium).


Heavy – From Proto Germanic (hafiga)

Element – From Latin (elementum)

(origin and meaning of heavy. (n.d.). Etymonline.

(element - Wiktionary. (n.d.).

Sample Sentence(s):

‘’The heaviest element known at the end of the 19th century was uranium, with an atomic mass of approximately 240 (now known to be 238) amu.’’

(Wikipedia contributors. (2022, December 31). Superheavy element. Wikipedia.

‘’Although the scientific community has assigned these heaviest elements to their own spots on the periodic table, there is still a lot we don’t know about them.’’

(Exploring the superheavy elements at the end of the periodic table. (n.d.).

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:


Élément lourd


Schweres element


Ciężki pierwiastek


Tungt element


Ağır Element

Links to Videos/Articles:

Cookie Absent. (n.d.).

Discovery of Elements 113 and 115. (n.d.).

Seeker. (2019, November 10). This Superheavy Atom Factory Is Pushing the Limits of the Periodic Table [Video]. YouTube.

Wikipedia contributors. (2022, December 31). Superheavy element. Wikipedia.


(Last edited: Friday, 26 May 2023, 5:25 PM)




Image/Video/Audio Source:

Short Definition:

The Heliosphere is the extended layer of the Sun consisting of its magnetosphere, astrosphere and atmosphere. It has a bubble-like shape, covering the entire Solar System. 

Detailed Definition:

The Heliosphere in physics terms is a cavity that is formed by the Sun in its neighbourhood. It binds our solar system together, like an atmosphere on Earth binds life on the surface. It also produces weather conditions like the ones on Earth, but the weather happens on a larger, solar system scale. 

The Heliosphere consists of plasma, particles and magnetic fields that interact with the space environment, producing what we call space weather. It is also a shield, without which we probably would not exist, as it protects our planet from cosmic rays, particles created far away in space. Without the existence of a heliosphere, our living cells would be continuously bombarded, causing damage.

As this wave of solar wind wanders away from the Sun, at some point it reaches termination shock, where its speed suddenly drops from even 700 km/s. Beyond the termination shock lies the heliosheath, the outer region of the heliosphere, where solar wind becomes denser and hotter as it presses towards wind in interstellar space. The boundary between it and the interstellar wind is called heliopause, the pressure of both of the winds stays in balance there. 


helio- +‎ -sphere

helio - from Ancient Greek ἥλιος (hḗlios).

sphere - from Ancient Greek σφαῖρα (sphaîra, “ball, globe”)

Sample Sentence(s):

Voyager 1 travelled through the heliosphere and encountered heliopause in 2015. 

As the heliopause marks the boundary between the matter originating from the Sun and matter originating from the rest of the galaxy, the spacecrafts that left the heliosphere are travelling through interstellar space.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]




Die Heliosphäre





Links to Videos/Articles:

Hubble Space Telescope

(Last edited: Thursday, 31 August 2023, 5:17 PM)

Short Definition
Hubble Space Telescope is a large telescope used to observe distant space objects. Hubble can observe almost complete light spectrum from the ultraviolet to near infrared light allowing extensive research of space. Its research includes but is not limited to beginning of the Universe, black holes, exoplanets and nebulas.

Detailed Definition

Hubble is a Cassegrain mirror telescope. It is built with two hyperbolically curved mirrors that are positioned facing each other. The main mirror that accumulates the light from celestial bodies is curved inwardly and leads light to the secondary smaller mirror. Second mirror is curved outwardly and diffuses the light bouncing it back to the first mirror. At the main mirror the light is finally collected together and lead to the focal point where optical instruments can gather the data.

Hubble was launched in 1990 and has been visited multiple times between 1993 and 2009 by astronauts. Those missions included various repairs like correcting mistakes that were noticed first after we started collecting the data and adding new science instruments to make information analysis easier.

Hubble studies helped us understand our Universe better being the first telescope located outside of Earth's atmosphere that prevented us from research of ultraviolet light that is only visible in space. One of the most important discoveries that Hubble made include:
-More accurate estimate on age of the Universe,
-Determining the rate with which the Universe is expanding,
-Discovering that almost every big Galaxy has a black hole at its center.


Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble, who made one of the most important discoveries in the field of astronomy in the 20th century.

Sample Sentence(s):

Hubble Space Telescope helped researchers make new discoveries.

Astronomers around the world use Hubble Space Telescope to research new exoplanets.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French: Hubble

German: Hubble-Weltraumteleskop

Italian: telescopio spaziale Hubble

Polish: Kosmiczny Teleskop Hubble’a

Swedish: Hubbleteleskopet

Links to Videos/Articles:

  • Space Telescope Science Institute (n.d.), Hubblesite, Retrieved from Website

  • Garner, R. (2017, December), Observatory – Optics, Retrieved from

  • Royal Museum Greenwich (n.d.), What has the Hubble Space Telescope Discovered?, Retrieved from

  • NASA, ESA (2000, January), Hubble Space Telescope, SM3A, Retrieved from


Hubble's Law

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 8:40 PM)

Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.). File:Hubble constant.JPG - Wikipedia.

Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.). File:Hubble constant.JPG - Wikipedia.

Short Definition:

Hubble's Law is a concept formed by Edwin Hubble, defining a positive relation between the distance and the speed of galaxies moving away from earth. The further they are, the faster they move away. This theory was a base to observe the expansion of universe.

Detailed Definition:

Hubble's law defines a relation between distance of galaxies and their speed of moving away from each other. The concept was observed through detection of redshift emitted by these galaxies, visible from earth. In simpler terms, the galaxies emit light on a spectrum further towards the red extreme, which can be observed by comparing measurements from different times, to calculate that the light has changed its wavelength and frequency, thus shifting on the visible light spectrum. The theory proves that the universe is constantly expanding, and thus it contributes to the Big Bang Theory. The constant movement of galaxies away from earth and each other, points to the increase of space in the universe. The theory also derives a so called, Hubble's constant which is a measure of how fast a given galaxy moves away at a given distance, and it comes out to around 70 (km/s)/Mpc which translates to expansion of 70 kilometres per second for every megaParsec of distance from the galaxy. Thus, for a galaxy 1 megaParsec away from earth, the structure moves away at a speed of 70 km/s.


Hubble's Law comes from the last name of the physicist Edwin Hubble.

Sample Sentence(s):

1. Hubble's Law contributed largely to the theory of relativity.
2. Hubble's Law proves that the universe is constantly expanding.


French - Loi de Hubble

German - Hubbles Gesetz

Italian - Legge di Hubble

Polish - Prawo Hubble'a

Swedish - Hubbles lag