sobota, 13 lipca 2024, 20:55
Strona: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University
Kurs: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University (UNIVERSEH)
Słownik pojęć: Dictionary of Space Concepts
E

ExoMars Programme

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 30 sierpnia 2023, 17:45)


Definition

A programme created in cooperation between ESA and Roscosmos, which is trying to find signs of biological processes on Mars indicating whether life has ever existed on that planet. The programme includes two missions:

  • The Trace Gas Orbiter and the Schiaparelli module (launched in 2016)
  • The Rosalind Franklin rover and a stationary surface science platform Kazachok (put on hold in March 2022 due to impossibility of cooperating with Roscosmos; launch date is not yet known)

The Trace Gas Orbiter’s task is to look for trace atmospheric gases, including methane, which would indicate the presence of biological processes, whereas the Rosalind Franklin rover is supposed to look for evidence of life on the surface and underground.


Etymology:

“Exo” in ExoMars refers to “exobiology”, a branch of sciences investigating life beyond Earth. A rover involved in this mission is named after Rosalind Franklin, who was an English chemist known in particular for her contribution to DNA research. The platform Kazachok is named after a Russian folk dance.


Sources:

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars/What_is_ExoMars


More about the mission:

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars/ExoMars_Factsheet


Expansion of the universe

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 19:04)
Image/Video/Audio Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe#/media/File:CMB_Timeline300_no_WMAP.jpg

Image/Video/Audio Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe#/media/File:CMB_Timeline300_no_WMAP.jpg

Short Definition:

The expansion of the universe is a phenomenon, which describes the inherent property of the universe, where two galaxies that are gravitationally unbound tend to increase the distance to each other and the rate of expansion is even accelerating. Far away parts of the observable universe will not be observable in the near future, because the velocity of expansion is higher than light speed from an outside perspective.

Detailed Definition:

The expansion of the universe is a phenomenon, which explains an inherent property of the universe to expand. The fact that the universe seems to expand, was first doubted because of the gravitational force and the fact that releases of energy like the big bang should normally lose power and should slow over time, but the opposite was observed. The elusive culprit was found quite fast. Dark matter is to be responsible for this phenomenon, but since we know even less about dark matter than about the expansion of the universe, details of how and why it expands are still unknown. 

This expansion occurs at every location of the universe and only gravitationally bound galaxies will be able to observe each other, because unbound galaxies will escape our observable universe at some point. The expansion can in some way be compared to an elastic rubber band, where the distances also increase when you stretch it, but not literally and not on a human scale. It is more that at a scale so far zoomed out, that the universe looks like a cosmic fluid and at this scale it is apparent that the density is decreasing over time. There are three viable methods to measure this expansion. One is based on redshifts, while another on the cosmic distance ladder. Those measurements gave non-matching results, and so 2018 information from gravitational waves made it possible to determine the rate of expansion even more precisely.

Etymology:

Expansion à from Latin expandere à spread out

Universeà from Old French univers à from Latin universum

Sample Sentence(s):

In a thought experiment of an ascending civilization in a faraway galaxy in the far future, they would only be able to observe their neighbouring galaxies and will think  that this is all there is to the universe and all this due to an expansion of the universe.

 

The rate of expansion of the universe is thought to be accelerating.


French:

Expansion de l'univers

German:

Ausdehnung des Universums

Polish:

Ekspansja Wszechświata

Swedish:

Utvidgning av universum

Links to Videos/Articles:

Expansion of the universe - Wikipedia









F

Falcon 9

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 30 sierpnia 2023, 17:47)

Source : SpaceX (2016, January 16). Falcon 9 vertical at Vandenberg Air Force Base. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64851825

Source : SpaceX (2016, January 16). Falcon 9 vertical at Vandenberg Air Force Base. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64851825


Definition:

Falcon 9 is the world's first orbital class reusable rocket, created and manufactured by SpaceX. It is a reusable, two-stage rocket capable of transporting both people and payloads into Earth's orbit and beyond. Reusability allows to reuse the most expensive parts of the rocket, which diminishes the cost of space access. The standard parameters of the rocket are:

Height - 70 m / 229.6 ft

Diameter - 3.7 m / 12 ft

Mass - 549,054 kg / 1,207,920 lb

The engine used in production of Falcon 9 is the Merlin, which uses grade kerosene (RP-1) and liquid oxygen as rocket propellants in a gas-generator power cycle. The Merlin engine was originally designed for recovery and reuse.

Falcon 9 has already been used in numerous missions or tests (Crew-1 Mission, Crew-2 Mission, Crew-3 Mission, DART Mission) and is planned to be launched in the next ones (for example Polaris Dawn in the last quarter of 2022). 


Sample Sentence(s):

"This rocket is the Falcon 9 that successfully reached orbit after 9 minutes and 38 seconds on its maiden test flight."
"It was suggested to be launched with a Falcon 9 rocket."


Translations:
  • French: Falcon 9
  •  German: Falcon 9
  •  Polish: Falcon 9 
  •  Swedish: Falcon 9

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.spacex.com/updates/
https://www.sciencefocus.com/science/environmentally-friendly-space-travel/
https://www.spacex.com/vehicles/falcon-9/

Fluid shift in the human body

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:08)
Image Source: S, M. (2023, June 01). Illustration of fluid distribution. self. self-made

Image Source: S, M. (2023, June 01). Illustration of fluid distribution. self. self-made

The fluid shift in the body is an adaption to the reduced gravitation force in space. This results in a shift of the body fluids from the lower body to the upper body.

Detailed Definition:

When a human body is placed on the earth surface, it has a hydrostatic (gravitational) blood pressure gradient and every body region has a different arterial pressure.

In the reduced gravity of space, the hydrostatic pressure in the arteries and veins is altered to a homogeneous arterial pressure in all regions (which is the original arterial pressure of the hearth), which results in the shifted fluid distribution through the body.

The human body reduces the volume of the total fluid and after the space resident, the fluid is shifted because of the returned gravity force.

This phenomenon can cause several issues like cardiac arrhytmia, muscular athropy and visual problems (because the globe is flattened, the blood flow is changed slightly and the diamteter of the optical nerve can increase).


Etymology:
fluid - Latin fluidus ("fluid, flowing, moist")
shift - Proto-Germanic skiftan (" to divide, change, seperate")

Sample sentence(s):

A medical effect of a space flight may be a fluid shift.

Nasa is studying the effect of the fluid shift and how it affects changes in vision.

Translation:

French:

déplacement du fluide

German:

Flüssigkeitsverschiebung 

Polish:

Przemieszczenie płynów w ludzkim organizmie

Swedish:

vätskeförskjutning


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/content/fluid-shifts-study-advances-journey-to-mars

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/citations/20150001888


Frequency

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


Image Source:



Short Definition:

A frequency (f) is a physical variable which measures how often a event is repeated in a defined period of time.  

The SI-unit is Hertz (hz) or s^-1.  

A common scenario in which the frequency is used, is in a wave, in which it can be calculated by measuring the Period T (the time it takes to complete one cycle) and using the equation: f = 1/T 


Detailed Definition:
Another equation by which the frequency can be calculated, is the following with \( \lambda = \) wavelength and v= phase velocity (if the wave is detected in a vacuum, the following applies: v=c)
\( f = v/ \lambda \).

There exist two special types of frequency, the angular frequency and the spatial frequency, which will be explained in the following:
The angular frequency (ω) describes how fast a vibration / wave is occurring by measuring the overstepped phase angle of the vibration / wave in a defined time period. This frequency can be calculated in the already introduced frequency f by using the following equation:
\( \omega = 2 \pi f = 2 \pi /T \).

The spatial frequency (ξ) measures how often sinusoidal components (components of a sinusoidal wave) of a structure repeat per unit of distance, which can be calculated by using the following equation:
\( \xi = 1/ \lambda = f/v \).

Etymology:
frequency - Latin frequentia (" an assembling in great numbers, a crowding; crowd, multitude, thong")

Sample Sentence(s):
The frequency can be identified by calculating the inverse of the period T.
The frequency is a variable which can characterize a wave.

Translations:
French: Fréquence

German: Frequenz


Polish: Częstotliwość

Swedish: Frekvens


Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.britannica.com/science/frequency-physics
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WIDhLeryWM
https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-2/Frequency-and-Period-of-a-Wave


G

Galactic disk

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 16:11)


Short Definition:

A galactic disc is a component of disc galaxies. An example are spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. The set-up of Galactic discs are a stellar component (these encompass the majority of the galaxy's stars) as well as a gaseous component (simply largely composed of cold gas and dust).

Detailed Definition:

The stellar disc of our Galaxy is divided into two components because the vertical density profile determined from star counts can be explained by a superposition of two exponentials, but not by a single exponential. (Gilmore & Reid, 1983). Further study found a thick-disc component with high-velocity dispersion, significant enrichment, and ancient age. Many writers believe that the thick disc was a relic of a turbulent period in Galactic history when the thick disc developed from accreted satellites or a thin disc heated the substance at high temperatures by one or more merger events (for a discussion, see Reddy Lambert, and Allende Prieto 2006).

This structure was first observed in external edge-on galaxies and later proposed as a distinct part of the Milky Way in a 1983 article by Gilmore and Reid. It is separate from both the thin disk and the halo. The thick disk is a structural component of approximately two-thirds of all disk galaxies, including the Milky Way. It was initially detected in external edge-on galaxies. Soon later, in the 1983 article by Gilmore and Reid, it was proposed as a galactic structure in the Milky Way, distinct from the thin disk and the halo.

Etymology

The term galaxy was derived from the Greek word galaxas (kklos) (o), which means "milky (circle)," and was called by its appearance in the sky as a milky ring of light.

Sample Sentence(s):

1.     It would take two billion years for the changes caused by a Galactic Battle to be realized.

2.     It glows on the galactic scale.

3.     The galactic disk is the Milky Way's disk component.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

Polish: dysk galaktyczny

French: disque galactique

German: galaktische Scheibe

Italian: disco galattico

Swedish: galaktisk skiva


Galaxy

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


Image/Video/Audio Source:

Short Definition:
A galaxy is a system composed of a star and an interstellar matter that is held together by the gravity force.

Detailed Definition:
A galaxy is a vast collection of stars, their solar systems, gas, and dust. In the centre of the galaxy a massive black hole is placed. Galaxies have different shapes from one another, with variations deriving from how the systems were created and later evolved. A few galaxies resemble our own in spiral shape. They possess curved arms that give it a pinwheel-like appearance. Others have smooth surfaces and oval forms. Scientists refer to them as elliptical galaxies. There are galaxies that are neither spirals nor ovals, either. They mimic blobs and have amorphous forms. Each of these galaxies emits light that we can see from its stars. In the future some galaxies will collide like NGC 4567 and NGC 4568 (commonly referred to as the Butterfly galaxies) started to do so and some will drift apart that the light from its stars will not reach the Earth.

Etymology:
Old French from medieval Latin galaxia, from Greek galaxias (kuklos) ‘milky (vault)’, from gala, galakt-‘milk’.

Sample Sentence(s):
When the sky is dark, centre of our galaxy is perfectly visible.

Translations:
French:
Une galaxie

German:
die Galaxie

Polish:
Galaktyka

Swedish:
En galax

Spanish:
Una galaxia

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/galaxy/en/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy
https://www.britannica.com/science/galaxy
https://edition.cnn.com/2022/08/10/world/colliding-galaxies-gemini-north-image-scn/index.html


Galaxy cluster

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 16:12)


Short Definition
Galaxy cluster is astronomical structure that consist of dark matter, hot plasma and galaxies. They are the biggest bound by gravity formations that we know of.


Detailed Definition

Galaxy clusters are the biggest structures bound by gravity. They consist in 85% of dark matter that is connecting the whole structure together. We can detect dark matter only by observing how its gravitation affects objects around it and what influence it has on light passing near it. The amount of gravity produced in clusters by dark matter is a cause for effect called “gravitational lensing”. That effect bends the light magnifying it and making the cluster into a big natural telescope. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to observe some of the smaller, further galaxies.

Most of the visible matter in galaxy clusters is in form of hot plasma called the intracluster medium (ICM). Due to the high gravitational potential energy of material the shock sends gas into really high temperatures that can raise up to 10s of millions grad Celsius. That temperature later causes the emission of X-Rays.

The smallest part of galaxy clusters are galaxies, they are around 2% of a total mass of the structure. Yet the biggest known to us galaxies are formed in clusters.


Etymology

Galaxy (Noun.), originated from Ancient Greek word galaxías, that means “Milky Way”. At first used only to describe Milky Way Galaxy, later on it changed its meaning to more general.

Cluster (Noun.), derived from Proto-Germanic *klas-, *klus-, meaning “to clump, lump together”.

Sample Sentence(s)

Galaxy clusters can consist of thousands of galaxies.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: amas de galaxies

German: Galaxienhaufen

Italian: mmasso di galassie

Polish: gromada galaktyk

Swedish: galaxhop


Links to Videos/Articles:

  1. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (n.d.), Clusters and Group of Galaxies, Retrieved from https://www.mpe.mpg.de/2040034/clusters_and_groups_of_galaxies
  2. Center for Astrophysics Harvard & Smithsonian (n.d.), Galaxy Clusters, Retrieved from https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-clusters
  3. Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), galaxy (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/galaxy#etymonline_v_1225
  4. Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), cluster (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/cluster#etymonline_v_13860
  5. European Space Agency (2007, Juli), The Bullet Cluster, Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2007/07/The_Bullet_Cluster2#.ZFmq1Dq136A.link  

Galaxy Evolution

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)

Picture: Model of Evolution of Galaxy

Image/Video/Audio Source:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Evolution_in_slow_motion.jpg

Short Definition:

Galaxy evolution or evolution of galaxy is a term that we have used for understanding the formation process and changes of galaxies since the beginning that made up the known universe. The term galaxy evolution also represents the models we form about the universe filled by the observed photons and the expansion since the big bang. At this point, the sizes, shapes and contents of all galaxies give us an idea about the formation and evolution of the universe.

Detailed Definition:

Galaxy evolution is a term used to understand the structure of the universe and the ongoing formation processes by comparing the morphology, brightness and content of galaxies with each other. The term galaxy evolution here studies galaxies in four main groups. These are Elliptical Galaxies, Lenticular Galaxies, Spiral Galaxies, and Irregular galaxies. The evolution process of galaxies in these four groups is examined under three main headings. These are Passive evolution (The state where the galaxy does not interact with any other galaxy [interactions or mergers] and thus does not produce star formations.), Interactions and Mergers (The state in which galaxies are affected by interacting with other galaxies), Secular Evolution (Situation in which processes by internal changes of galaxies affect their colour, luminosity and shape.)

Etymology:

From Latin ‘Galaxias’ and From Latin ‘ēvolūtiōnis’ (Unrolling/Unfolding)

Sample Sentence(s):

Radio telescopes have played a pivotal role in the understanding of galactic evolution.’’

(Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology and Dark Energy. (2018, May 30). Public Website. 

https://www.skatelescope.org/galaxyevolution/)

‘’Understanding how black holes shape their host galaxies is part of the study of galactic structure and evolution.’’

(Galaxy Formation and Evolution | Center for Astrophysics. (n.d.). https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-formation-and-evolution)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Évolution de la galaxie

German:

Galaxienentwicklung

Polish:

Ewolucja galaktyki

Swedish:

Utveckling av galaxer

Turkish:

Galaksi Evrimi

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.britannica.com/science/galaxy/Evolution-of-galaxies-and-quasars

https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/science/galaxies.html

https://www.skatelescope.org/galaxyevolution/

https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-formation-and-evolution

https://sites.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay20/eaa-galevol.pdf

https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/E/evolution+of+galaxies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rdd9KAUcvgQ&ab_channel=TakayukiSaitoh

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WtvU4Xn2UE&ab_channel=CaltechAstro


Galaxy Merger

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:22)
Source: https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

Source: https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

Short Definition:

A galaxy merger is the phenomenon of two or more galaxies colliding with each other, resulting in the formation of a new, enlarged galaxy.

Detailed Definition:

A galaxy merger occurs when two or more galaxies collide with each other, leading to the creation of a larger galaxy. Galaxy mergers are the most violent type of galaxy interaction. When a collision of several galaxies occurs, the stars and dark matter in each of them become affected, which has influence on both the orbits of the stars and the shape of the newly formed galaxy. 

During a merger, an increase in star formation can be observed, as the friction interaction of gas and dust contributes to the raise of energy in the resulting system. Galaxy mergers provide astronomers with the merger rate, which is a fundamental measurement of galaxy evolution and sheds some light on how galaxies have increased in size over time.

Etymology:

merge - Latin mergere"to dip, dip in, immerse, plunge"

galaxy - Late Latin galaxias - Greek galaxías

Sample Sentence(s):

Galaxy mergers can be simulated in computers, to learn more about galaxy formation.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Fusion de galaxies

German: Galaxienfusion

Polish: Fuzja galaktyk, połączenie się galaktyk

Swedish: Galaxsammanslagning


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

https://www.thoughtco.com/interacting-galaxies-have-interesting-results-3072045

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4disyKG7XtU


Gamma ray

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:30)
Illustration of an emission of a gamma ray ( γ ) from an atomic nucleus Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray#/media/File:Gamma_Decay.svg

Illustration of an emission of a gamma ray ( γ ) from an atomic nucleus Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_ray#/media/File:Gamma_Decay.svg

Short Definition:

Gamma rays are very high frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted as an outcome of radioactivity. Due to high frequency, gamma rays have very high energy. Natural sources of gamma emission originating on Earth are mainly an effect of radioactive decay and secondary radiation from atmospheric interactions among cosmic ray particles.

Detailed Definition:

A gamma ray, also known as gamma radiation, is a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation originating from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. Gamma rays from radioactive decay are within the energy range starting at few kiloelectronvolts (keV) to roughly 8 megaelectronvolts (MeV), matching to the usual energy levels in nuclei among reasonably long lifetimes. The energy spectrum of gamma emission can be utilized to recognize the decaying radionuclides with a technique called gamma spectroscopy. Very-high-energy gamma rays in the 100–1000 teraelectronvolt (TeV) range have been observed from sources such as the Cygnus X-3 microquasar.

Etymology:

gamma - The third letter of the Greek alphabet (Γ, γ),
radiation - From the past participle stem of Latin radiare (“to gleam, shine, beam”).

Sample Sentence(s):

"Solar flares emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including gamma rays."
"Gamma rays originating from far-distant quasars are used to estimate the extragalactic background light in the universe."

Translations:

French: 

Rayon gamma

German:

Gammastrahlung

Polish:

Promieniowanie gamma, promienie gamma

Swedish:

Gammastrålning

Links to Videos/Articles:



Geosynchronous orbit

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 17:13)
Projection of the path traced by geosynchronous satellites of different inclinations. Source: Wikipedia

Projection of the path traced by geosynchronous satellites of different inclinations. Source: Wikipedia

Short Definition:
Geosynchronous orbit is an orbit with orbital period matching Earth's full rotation time.

Detailed Definition:
Objects in geosynchronous orbit appear to trace out a path on the sky, typically a figure-8 shape every day. The exact path depends on orbit's eccentricity and inclination, but the object can be observed in the same place on the sky, same time every day. This type of orbit is useful for example for Earth observing satellites.

Etymology:
From ancient greek geo (Earth) + synchronous

Sample Sentence(s):
A satellite is placed in geosynchronous orbit above Europe.

Translations:

French:
orbite géosynchrone

German:
geosynchrone Umlaufbahn

Polish:
Orbita geosynchroniczna

Swedish:
geosynkron bana

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.space.com/29222-geosynchronous-orbit.html
https://gisgeography.com/geosynchronous-geostationary-orbits/

Gravity

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 26 maja 2023, 17:25)

Image/Video/Audio:




Image/Video/Audio Source:



Short Definition:

Gravity is one of the fundamentals of the universe and the force of attraction between every single existing body. It keeps the universe and our solar system, together.


Detailed Definition:

One of the first theories about the existence of gravity was made by Aristotle, a Greek philosopher. He believed that objects tend toward their inner heaviness. Many researches and scientists later, this theory became more developed and finally, in XVII century Isaac Newton (after being hit by the famous apple) described gravity as a force that keeps the planets in their place. This definition evolved into a law and formula (F=G*(M*m)/r^2) which we use today. 

Every object has its gravitational field. The heavier the object, the greater is its force of attraction in this field. An apple has its gravitational field too, however it weighs thousands of times less than a planet. That is why we don't see it every day. The gravitational force of a planet is so big that we need a great speed and precise calculations to be able to fly away from it and not be brought back. It is measured by the acceleration it gives to the falling object. For example, at Earth's surface it is equal to 9,81 m/s and at the Moon's only 1,6 m/s.


Etymology:

from Old French, or from Latin gravitas ‘weight, seriousness’



Sample Sentence(s):

Every object with mass has gravity. Gravity creates stars and planets by pulling together the material from which they are made.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

la gravité


German:

die Schwere


Polish:

grawitacja


Swedish:

allvar


Links to Videos/Articles:


Gravity Assist

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 13 marca 2023, 15:55)


Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=2143https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18049439



Short Definition:

Gravity assistance describes the intentional use of the gravitational attraction of a celestial body, in order to modify the trajectory of a space vehicle. This maneuver allows the spacecraft to save rocket fuel.


Detailed Definition:

Etymology:

1. Gravity (Noun.), originating from the Latin word gravitatem, with the meaning of “weight, heaviness, pressure

2. Assist (Verb.), originating from Latin word assistere, which means “standing by, help”

Sample Sentence(s):

“The global minimum velocity increments of direct transfer trajectory and gravity-assist trajectories are obtained for each candidate target.”


Translations:
  • French: Assistance gravitationnelle
  • German: Schwerkraftumlenkung
  • Polish: Asysta grawitacyjna
  • Swedish: Gravitationsslunga

Links to Videos/Articles:

  1. "Section 1: Environment, Chapter 4: Trajectories". Basics of Space Flight. NASA. 
  2. "Gravity assist". The Planetary Society. 

Great Red Spot

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 17:14)
Sources: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711

Sources: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711


Definition:
A persistent large anticyclonic storm in the atmosphere of Jupiter, 22° south from its equator, which has been continuously observed since the 19th century.

As of 2021, the Great Red Spot is reported to be about 10,000 miles across and 300 miles deep into the atmosphere of Jupiter. However, according to NASA observations, it is shrinking and becoming taller, and it is not yet clear whether the Great Red Spot will stabilize or disappear completely.


Translation:
  • French: la Grande Tache rouge
  • German: der Große Rote Fleck
  • Polish: Wielka Czerwona Plama
  • RussianБольшое Красное Пятно 
  • Swedish: Stora röda fläcken

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDi4IdtvDVE


H

Heavy Element

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 17:16)
Image/Video/Audio: Image: Periodical Table Image/Video/Audio Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ionization_energy_periodic_table.svg

Image/Video/Audio: Image: Periodical Table Image/Video/Audio Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ionization_energy_periodic_table.svg

Short Definition:

Heavy elements are the general name for elements containing atomic numbers greater than 92. Above these, elements with atomic numbers 112 and above are called superheavy elements. The state that creates the atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the element.

Detailed Definition:

Heavy elements, which are determined by the number of protons in the nucleus of the element (this called atomic number) are elements with atomic number greater than 92. One row above them there is superheavy elements with atomic numbers greater than 112. The first artificially produced heavy and superheavy elements were first produced during the Cyclotron experiments.

One of the most important issues about heavy elements is the concept of 'island of stability'. This concept refers to the region in the table of nucleides where elements with half-lives longer than some other super heavy elements are found. However, it should be noted that we are ona narrow time scale, from minutes to micro/nano seconds at most. The term was first coined in 1998 with the discovery of the super heavy element 114 (Flerovium).

Etymology:

Heavy – From Proto Germanic (hafiga)

Element – From Latin (elementum)

(origin and meaning of heavy. (n.d.). Etymonline. https://www.etymonline.com/word/heavy)

(element - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/element)

Sample Sentence(s):

‘’The heaviest element known at the end of the 19th century was uranium, with an atomic mass of approximately 240 (now known to be 238) amu.’’

(Wikipedia contributors. (2022, December 31). Superheavy element. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superheavy_element)

‘’Although the scientific community has assigned these heaviest elements to their own spots on the periodic table, there is still a lot we don’t know about them.’’

(Exploring the superheavy elements at the end of the periodic table. (n.d.). cen.acs.org.)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Élément lourd

German:

Schweres element

Polish:

Ciężki pierwiastek

Swedish:

Tungt element

Turkish:

Ağır Element

Links to Videos/Articles:

Cookie Absent. (n.d.). https://physicstoday.scitation.org/action/cookieAbsent

Discovery of Elements 113 and 115. (n.d.). https://pls.llnl.gov/research-and-development/nuclear-science/project-highlights/livermorium/elements-113-and-115

Seeker. (2019, November 10). This Superheavy Atom Factory Is Pushing the Limits of the Periodic Table [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kg0AN8bZ4us

Wikipedia contributors. (2022, December 31). Superheavy element. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superheavy_element













Heliosphere

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 26 maja 2023, 17:25)

Term/Concept: 

Heliosphere

Image/Video/Audio:




Image/Video/Audio Source:


Short Definition:

The Heliosphere is the extended layer of the Sun consisting of its magnetosphere, astrosphere and atmosphere. It has a bubble-like shape, covering the entire Solar System. 


Detailed Definition:

The Heliosphere in physics terms is a cavity that is formed by the Sun in its neighbourhood. It binds our solar system together, like an atmosphere on Earth binds life on the surface. It also produces weather conditions like the ones on Earth, but the weather happens on a larger, solar system scale. 

The Heliosphere consists of plasma, particles and magnetic fields that interact with the space environment, producing what we call space weather. It is also a shield, without which we probably would not exist, as it protects our planet from cosmic rays, particles created far away in space. Without the existence of a heliosphere, our living cells would be continuously bombarded, causing damage.

As this wave of solar wind wanders away from the Sun, at some point it reaches termination shock, where its speed suddenly drops from even 700 km/s. Beyond the termination shock lies the heliosheath, the outer region of the heliosphere, where solar wind becomes denser and hotter as it presses towards wind in interstellar space. The boundary between it and the interstellar wind is called heliopause, the pressure of both of the winds stays in balance there. 


Etymology:

helio- +‎ -sphere

helio - from Ancient Greek ἥλιος (hḗlios).

sphere - from Ancient Greek σφαῖρα (sphaîra, “ball, globe”)



Sample Sentence(s):

Voyager 1 travelled through the heliosphere and encountered heliopause in 2015. 


As the heliopause marks the boundary between the matter originating from the Sun and matter originating from the rest of the galaxy, the spacecrafts that left the heliosphere are travelling through interstellar space.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

Héliosphère


German:

Die Heliosphäre


Polish:

Heliosfera


Swedish:

Heliosfären


Links to Videos/Articles:


Hubble Space Telescope

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: czwartek, 31 sierpnia 2023, 17:17)


Short Definition
Hubble Space Telescope is a large telescope used to observe distant space objects. Hubble can observe almost complete light spectrum from the ultraviolet to near infrared light allowing extensive research of space. Its research includes but is not limited to beginning of the Universe, black holes, exoplanets and nebulas.


Detailed Definition

Hubble is a Cassegrain mirror telescope. It is built with two hyperbolically curved mirrors that are positioned facing each other. The main mirror that accumulates the light from celestial bodies is curved inwardly and leads light to the secondary smaller mirror. Second mirror is curved outwardly and diffuses the light bouncing it back to the first mirror. At the main mirror the light is finally collected together and lead to the focal point where optical instruments can gather the data.

Hubble was launched in 1990 and has been visited multiple times between 1993 and 2009 by astronauts. Those missions included various repairs like correcting mistakes that were noticed first after we started collecting the data and adding new science instruments to make information analysis easier.

Hubble studies helped us understand our Universe better being the first telescope located outside of Earth's atmosphere that prevented us from research of ultraviolet light that is only visible in space. One of the most important discoveries that Hubble made include:
-More accurate estimate on age of the Universe,
-Determining the rate with which the Universe is expanding,
-Discovering that almost every big Galaxy has a black hole at its center.


Etymology

Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble, who made one of the most important discoveries in the field of astronomy in the 20th century.


Sample Sentence(s):

Hubble Space Telescope helped researchers make new discoveries.

Astronomers around the world use Hubble Space Telescope to research new exoplanets.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French: Hubble

German: Hubble-Weltraumteleskop

Italian: telescopio spaziale Hubble

Polish: Kosmiczny Teleskop Hubble’a

Swedish: Hubbleteleskopet


Links to Videos/Articles:

  • Space Telescope Science Institute (n.d.), Hubblesite, Retrieved from Website hubblesite.org

  • Garner, R. (2017, December), Observatory – Optics, Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-space-telescope-optics-system

  • Royal Museum Greenwich (n.d.), What has the Hubble Space Telescope Discovered?, Retrieved from https://www.rmg.co.uk/stories/topics/what-has-hubble-space-telescope-discovered

  • NASA, ESA (2000, January), Hubble Space Telescope, SM3A, Retrieved from https://esahubble.org/images/sts103_713_048/



Tagi:

Hubble's Law

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:40)


Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.). File:Hubble constant.JPG - Wikipedia. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Hubble_constant.JPG

Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.). File:Hubble constant.JPG - Wikipedia. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Hubble_constant.JPG


Short Definition:

Hubble's Law is a concept formed by Edwin Hubble, defining a positive relation between the distance and the speed of galaxies moving away from earth. The further they are, the faster they move away. This theory was a base to observe the expansion of universe.


Detailed Definition:

Hubble's law defines a relation between distance of galaxies and their speed of moving away from each other. The concept was observed through detection of redshift emitted by these galaxies, visible from earth. In simpler terms, the galaxies emit light on a spectrum further towards the red extreme, which can be observed by comparing measurements from different times, to calculate that the light has changed its wavelength and frequency, thus shifting on the visible light spectrum. The theory proves that the universe is constantly expanding, and thus it contributes to the Big Bang Theory. The constant movement of galaxies away from earth and each other, points to the increase of space in the universe. The theory also derives a so called, Hubble's constant which is a measure of how fast a given galaxy moves away at a given distance, and it comes out to around 70 (km/s)/Mpc which translates to expansion of 70 kilometres per second for every megaParsec of distance from the galaxy. Thus, for a galaxy 1 megaParsec away from earth, the structure moves away at a speed of 70 km/s.

Etymology:

Hubble's Law comes from the last name of the physicist Edwin Hubble.

Sample Sentence(s):

1. Hubble's Law contributed largely to the theory of relativity.
2. Hubble's Law proves that the universe is constantly expanding.

Translations:

French - Loi de Hubble

German - Hubbles Gesetz

Italian - Legge di Hubble

Polish - Prawo Hubble'a

Swedish - Hubbles lag


I

Ilmenite

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 16 sierpnia 2023, 12:42)

Short Definition:

A usually massive iron-black mineral that consists of an oxide of iron and titanium and that is a major titanium ore.


Detailed Definition:

Ilmenite is named after the Ilmenski mountains in Russia, where the mineral was first discovered. It is slightly magnetic, which means that magnets can be used to separate it from other minerals in sand deposits. Ilmenite is also a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks, sediments, and sedimentary rocks in many parts of the world. Also, it is a black iron-titanium oxide with a chemical composition of FeTiO3. 


Etymology:

Named after Ilmen Mountains in Russia +‎ -ite in 1827. 

The suffix –ite is used to form nouns denoting rocks or minerals, from Latin -ītēs, and from Ancient Greek -ῑ́της.


Sample Sentences:

"Ilmenite is an economically important and interesting mineral."

"Ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium and the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, printing inks, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics."



Translations:

  • French: Illménite
  • German: Ilmenit
  • Polish: Ilmenit
  • Swedish: Ilmenit

Links to Videos/Articles:

  1. https://geologyscience.com/minerals/ilmenite/
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3K1UzTnbW5A&ab_channel=TheWorldofMinerals
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilmenite

Inflation

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:57)


Sources:

https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_cosmo_infl.html

https://www.space.com/42261-how-did-inflation-happen-anyway.html


Definition:

Rapid expansion of the universe at its early stages of development (at around 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang).

The Inflation Theory was developed in 1980 by Alan Guth, Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt, and Andy Albrecht and attempted to account for phenomena that could not be explained by the Big Bang Theory (the Horizon Problem, the Flatness Problem and the Monopole Problem). Nowadays, the Inflation Theory is considered to be an extension of the Big Bang Theory.


Translation
  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: inflacja kosmologiczna
  • Swedish:

Infrared

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)

Image:

 

Source:


Short Definition:

Light with wavelength from 800 nanometers to 1 millimiter.

Detailed Definition:

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from 800 nanometers to one millimeter. It is next to the red end of the visible spectrum, hereby the name. Also called IR, it is a kind of electromagnetic radiation that has qualities like both a wave and a particle, the photon, and propagates energy and momentum as well as exerting radiation pressure.

Etymology:

Infrared comes from Latin: infra, which means below.

Sample Sentence(s):

To keep an eye on workplace activities, they used infrared cameras.

Without disturbing the bats, an infrared camera records them.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: infrarouge

German: Infrarot

Polish: podczerwień

Swedish: infraröd

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://science.nasa.gov/ems/07_infraredwaves

https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/infrared-vision


Initial mass function (IMF)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 20:59)

Image source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Plot_of_various_initial_mass_functions.svg/800px-Plot_of_various_initial_mass_functions.svg.png

Image source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Plot_of_various_initial_mass_functions.svg/800px-Plot_of_various_initial_mass_functions.svg.png


Short Definition:

The initial mass function (IMF) describes the distribution of stellar masses as a large cluster of stars is newly formed and is based on an average from stars in our Milky Way.

This function is useful for understanding the formation of stellar systems and their evolution. In most cases, the initial mass function is shown with a logarithmic scale.

Derailed Definition:

The initial mass function shows few massive stars which are more massive than the sun, while sun-sized stars are more abundant and stars that are smaller than the sun are quite common (this trend does not continue linear the smaller they get):

The function can be described by using the following law:

IMF = constant x m^(-α)

where m = initial star mass and α = slope of the logarithmic plot.

Until this point in time, it is not certain if the IMF varies in extreme situations and if the calculation based on our Milky Way can be unconditionally applied to other galaxies.


Etymology:

initial - Latin initialis ("initial, incipent, of the beginning")

mass - old French masse (" lump, heap, pile; crowd, large amount")

function - Latin functionem (" a performance, an execution")


Sample sentences:

There are different curve forms of the initial mass function based on the way the alpha and the constant are calculated.


Translation:

French: fonction de masse initiale

German: Anfangsmassenfunktion

Polish: początkowa funkcja masy

Swedish: funktion för dem ursprungliga massan


Links to Videos/Articles:

http://astro1.physics.utoledo.edu/~megeath/ph6820/lecture12_eqn.pdf
http://www.astro.yale.edu/larson/papers/Nagoya99.pdf
https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/initial-mass-function
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5WlgcBh9T8

International Asteroid Warning Network

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 21:17)


Short Definition
International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) is a group linking organizations responsible for detecting, monitoring and characterization of possibly hazardous Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). They cooperate with Governments to establish plans in case of Meteorite impact.


Detailed Definition

There are multiple functions of IAWN, but mostly it is tasked with creating a strategy using protocols and communication plans to help Governments create a suitable response in case of NEO impact. Some of the other functions of IAWN are as followed:

- With help of optical and radar facilities to detect, characterize and follow possibly hazardous objects.
- To act as an international focal point for accurate information about NEOs and its population.
- To correlate campaigns that are focusing on monitoring potential Near-Earth Objects.
- To create suitable responses and policies regarding communication and information in case of impact. They are also responsible for creating a database of potential consequences once the impact occurs.


Etymology:

IAWN stands for International Asteroid Warning Network.


Sample Sentence(s):

IAWN includes members from all over the world that are creating a response in case of meteorite impact.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French: International Asteroid Warning Network


German: 
International Asteroid Warning Network


Italian: 
International Asteroid Warning Network


Polish:
Międzynarodowa Sieć Ostrzegania przed Asteroidami


Swedish: 
International Asteroid Warning Network


Links to Videos/Articles:

  • Warner, E. (2021), International Asteroid Warning Network, Retrieved from https://iawn.net/

  • United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (2014), IAWN, Retrieved from https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/topics/neos/iawn.html

  • ESA (2011), Space Situational Awareness - Near Earth Objects, Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2011/10/Space_Situational_Awareness_-_Near_Earth_Objects


International Space Station

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 21:45)



Definition:

A research facility that was launched in 1998, is orbiting around the Earth and is operated by multinational groups of astronauts sent regularly by five space agencies participating in the project – NASA (the USA), Roscosmos (Russia), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan) and CSA (Canada).


Translations:
  • English: International Space Station, ISS    [ˌɪn.təˈnæʃ.(ə.)n(ə)l speɪs ˈsteɪʃǝn]
  • French: Station spatiale internationale (f), SSI    [stasjɔ̃ spasjal ɛ̃tɛʁnasjɔnal]
  • German: die Internationale Raumstation    [ɪntɐnat͡sjo:na:lə ʁaʊ̯mʃtat͡sjo:n]
  • Russian: Международная космическая станция (f), МКС    [mʲɪʐdʊnɐˈrodnəjə kɐˈsmʲit͡ɕɪskəjə ˈstant͡sɨɪ̯ə]
  • Polish: Międzynarodowa Stacja Kosmiczna
  • Swedish:

Interstellar Medium

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 22 września 2023, 18:16)


webteam@eso.org. (n.d.). ESO - The Planet, the Galaxy and the Laser. 1999- 2008 ESO. https://web.archive.org/web/20081121184421/http://www.eso.org/gallery/v/ES OPIA/Paranal/phot-33a-07.tif.html

webteam@eso.org. (n.d.). ESO - The Planet, the Galaxy and the Laser. 1999- 2008 ESO. https://web.archive.org/web/20081121184421/http://www.eso.org/gallery/v/ES OPIA/Paranal/phot-33a-07.tif.html


Short Definition:

The interstellar medium (ISM) is a composition of radiation and matter which occurs between star systems, which are compositions of stars orbiting each other. The medium is usually created from various gasses, mostly hydrogen and helium. This matter is a filler between the stars.

Detailed Definition:

The interstellar medium (ISM) is a region filled with gas and dust in between stars. The medium is created when a star dies. As the star collapses into itself, it releases huge amounts of energy and matter at high velocity and high temperature. When this mix encounters patches of interstellar gas, the visible nebulas of interstellar medium are created. The gas is ionized, and space dust blocks certain light waves which. Contrary to common belief, space is not completely empty and is not a full vacuum but is filled with matter such as gas and space dust. The interstellar medium is impactful in formations it is in. Stars which are positioned in the denser areas of ISM supply it with matter and energy through stellar winds or supernovae (the explosion of a star). The inter-influence of stars and ISM formations helps scientists determine the lifespan of given star formations.

Etymology:

This phrase is a conjunction between the words 'interstellar' and 'medium'. The word 'interstellar' comes from combining the prefix 'inter' from Latin for "between" and the word 'stellar' from Latin 'stellaris' meaning "pertaining to a star". The word 'medium' from Latin medium "the middle, midst, center; interval"

Sample Sentence(s):

1. The interstellar medium can be visible with long exposure astrological photography.
2. The Pillars of Creation are a beautiful example of the interstellar medium.

Translations:

French: milieu interstellaire

German:  interstellares Medium

Italian: mezzo interstellare

Polish: ośrodek międzygwiazdowy

Swedish: interstellärt medium


J

James Webb Space Telescope

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 21:51)

Source:

Short Definition:

The James Webb Space Telescope is a large telescope in space that conducts infrared astronomy. The cutting edge telescope technology aims to shine light on stars or galaxies, that were previously hidden in “plain” sight. Many people think this is the successor to the Hubble telescope, but in reality, it is more of a successor for the Spitzer space telescope, which also is an infrared telescope. The property of light to shift to red makes this a helpful telescope to look at the oldest galaxies.

Detailed Definition:

The James Webb Space Telescope is a visualizing device for away structures or phenomenons that work in the infrared range. The biggest telescope in space had to overcome many difficulties to even be transported to space. The telescope had to be folded to even fit in the rocket, and so they used Origami techniques to transport it safely to its place. JWST is not an all-rounder telescope like Hubble is. JWST aims to discover secrets from almost the beginning of time with the most sophisticated infrared sensors, cameras and lenses that were used till now, but looking at the oldest stars and galaxies is not its only job. JWST will also be used to identify fitting exoplanets by scanning the atmospheres of those planets for the right gas composition.

Etymology:

Latin- spatiumà Old French -espaceà Middle English – space

Modern latintele and modern latin -scopiumà Modern latin – Telescopiumà English telescope

Sample Sentence(s):

Webb will be the largest telescope ever placed in space; 100 times more powerful than Hubble. So big it has to fold origami-style to fit in the rocket and will unfold like a "Transformer" in space (NASA)

 NGC 346, one of the most dynamic star-forming regions in nearby galaxies, is full of mystery. Now, it is less mysterious with new findings from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. (NASA)

French:

télescope spatial james webb

German:

James Webb Weltraumteleskop

Polish:

Kosmiczny Teleskop Jamesa Webba

Swedish:

James Webb rymdteleskop

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://webb.nasa.gov/ 

https://webbtelescope.org/









Jet engine

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 22 września 2023, 18:18)

U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG Photograph of a jet engine in operation, with a long converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG Photograph of a jet engine in operation, with a long converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

Short Definition:

A jet engine is a reaction engine that produces a jet of heated gas to be discharged from the engine as a reaction mass. The Propelling gas is usually air, especially when the engine is used in the atmosphere on flying vehicles, but can be other gas or liquid.

Detailed Definition:

A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast-moving (often supersonic) jet of hot gas (usually air, if the engine is used in the atmosphere) and to generate thrust. Jet engines are usually internal combustion engines and used everywhere: on planes, boats and rockets.

Etymology:

Jet – from French jet– throw, cast, gush, spurtEngine – from Middle English engyn or Anglo-Norman engine or Old French engin– skill, cleverness, war machine

Sample Sentences:

The jet engine roared as the airplane accelerated down the runway.

Translations

French: Moteur à réaction

German: Turbinen-Strahltriebwerk

Italian: Esoreattore

Polish: Silnik odrzutowy

Swedish: Jetmotor

Russian: Реаĸтивный двигатель

Ukrainian: Реаĸтивний двигун

References:

SKYbrary Aviation Safety. (2019, December). Jet engine. Retrieved from https://www.skybrary.aero/articles/jet-engine

Airbus. (2016, November). Flight operations briefing notes – Supplementary techniques : Handling engine malfunctions. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20161022181226/http://www.airbus.com/fileadmin/media_gallery/files/safety_library_items/AirbusSafetyLib_-FLT_OPS-SUPP_TECH-SEQ07.pdf


Jupiter

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 21:55)

Source: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711

Source: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711

Definition

  1. The largest planet in the Solar System (143000 km in diameter), the fifth planet from the Sun.
  2. The third brightest natural celestial body visible in the Earth’s night sky.

Etymology:

The planet is named after Jupiter, the highest ancient Roman deity, the god of sky and thunder.


Translations:
  • English: Jupiter    [ˈdʒuːpɪtər]
  • French: Jupiter    [ʒypitɛʁ]
  • German: Jupiter    [ˈjʊpitɐ]
  • Polish: Jowisz
  • Russian: Юпитер (masc.)    [jʉˈpʲitʲɪr]
  • Swedish:
K

Kalpana Chawla

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 14 marca 2023, 13:16)


Source: http://lk.astronautilus.pl/astros/366.htm


Definition: 

Kalpana Chawla, born in Karnal, India, in 1962, is first astronaut with an Indian descent. In her early years, her father took her to local flying clubs, where she developed her passion for flying. She moved to the U.S. to pursue degrees in engineering (Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado) and eventually after graduation, she did research, focusing on vertical take-off and landing concepts. Her area was the development and implementation of efficient techniques for performing aerodynamic optimization. In 1994, Chawla was chosen as an astronaut candidate and took part in 2 space flights. The second flight ended tragically in 16.01.2003, as Space Shuttle Columbia exploded while being on the way back to the Earth, after 15 days and 22 hours spent in space. The explosion while re-entrng into Earth's atmosphere killed all seven astronauts on board, including Kalpana Chawla. 


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/chawla_kalpana.pdf

https://www.space.com/17056-kalpana-chawla-biography.html


Kepler’s laws

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 15:06)
Image/Video/Audio Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Kepler_laws_diagram.svg

Image/Video/Audio Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Kepler_laws_diagram.svg

Short Definition:

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are one of the most basic concepts of astronomy. In short, these correct Copernicus heliocentric theory by replacing circular orbits with elliptical ones, and explain the motion of planets.


Detailed Definition:

There are three Kepler laws of planetary motion:

  1. Each planet's orbit about the Sun is an ellipse.

  2. Planets do not move with constant speed along their orbits.

  3. The period for a planet to orbit the Sun increases rapidly with the radius of its orbit.

These were published in the XVII century and confirmed by Isaac Newton and are known as his laws of motion and law of universal gravitation. 


Etymology:

Kepler - a surname from German

law - /lɔː/, Old English lagu, from Old Norse lag ‘something laid down or fixed’, of Germanic origin and related to lay.



Sample Sentence(s):

Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion explain how an astronomical body would orbit the heavy gravitational object. 

I forgot to use Kepler’s laws during my science test, so I failed.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

lois de Kepler


German:

Keplerschen Gesetzen


Polish:

prawa Keplera


Swedish:

Keplers lagar


Links to Videos/Articles:

Kuiper Belt

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 15:07)

Image:

Image: Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38097918

Image: Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38097918

Short Definition:

The Kuiper Belt is a ring of rocky objects floating alongside our Solar System beyond Neptune. It extends outwards from Neptune’s orbit thousands of AU (astronomical units).


Detailed Definition:

The Kuiper Belt is similar to the asteroid belt (the one between Mars and Jupiter), but it is far larger. It consists of small rocky creatures, among which are so called dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake etc.

It is believed that many bodies found nowadays inside of it are as old as our Solar System. 

It was being discovered little by little during the twentieth century. Firstly, there was just an idea given by Gerard Kuiper, that Pluto cannot be alone in the outer Solar System. After many precise calculations and continuous observation of the sky, in 1992, two scientists, Dave Jewitt and Jane Luu, found a second Kuiper Belt Object (KBO), confirming the theory.



Etymology:

Kuiper (/ˈkaɪpər/) - from Dutch, meaning copper, 

Belt (/bɛlt/) - Old English, of Germanic origin, from Latin balteus ‘girdle’.



Sample Sentence(s):

One of the largest objects of the Kuiper Belt, Pluto, a dwarf planet, is the tenth-most-massive object to directly orbit the Sun.


French: 

la ceinture de Kuiper


German:

der Kuiper-Gürtel


Polish:

Pas Kuipera


Swedish:

Kuiperbältet


Links to Videos/Articles:


L

Lagrange Point

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:17)
Source: NOAA Images (2016, September 21). Lagrange Points. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/125201706@N06/29832072485

Source: NOAA Images (2016, September 21). Lagrange Points. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/125201706@N06/29832072485

Short Definition:

A Lagrange Point is a place where the gravitation force of two large masses (for example the earth and sun) addition together, so that a small object (for example a spacecraft or a telescope) can move with the two large masses on a path.

There are 5 different Lagrange points in total for each constellation.


Detailed Definition:

In the spot of a Lagrange point, the gravitational force by two large masses equal the centripetal force (the force that makes a body follow a curved path), which is required for the small mass to move along the two large masses and can reduce the fuel usage.

The Lagrange points L1,L2 and L3 are unstable, which can lead to an unwanted movement of the small mass away from the Lagrange point if a force is properly applied to the small mass. The Lagrange points L4 and L5 are stable.

The calculation is done by solving the three-body problem, where the Lagrange points are the constant solution for.


Etymology:

The word point originated from the Latin word pungere("to prick, pierce").


Sample Sentence(s):

"The Lagrange point L2 is the position of the James Webb Space Telescope."


Translations:

French: PointdeLagrange

German: Lagrange-punkt

Polish: punkt Lagrange’a, punkt libracji

Swedish: Lagrangepunkt

Italian: punto di Lagrange

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.chicagospace.org/the-five-lagrange-points-l1-l2-l3-l4-and-l5/

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/754/what-is-a-lagrange-point/

https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Operations/What_are_Lagrange_points

https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=foyJzvpeaBE

Launch escape system

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 16:59)

NASA. (1965, June). Apollo Pad Abort Test #2. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Apollo_Pad_Abort_Test_-2.jpg

NASA. (1965, June). Apollo Pad Abort Test #2. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Apollo_Pad_Abort_Test_-2.jpg

Short Definition:

Launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a system in rockets that will separate a capsule with crew and move it away from the rocket in case of emergency such as pending rocket explosion. This is a safety measure necessary to evacuate the crew when their presence in the rocket is life-threatening.

Detailed Definition:

LES is attached to the capsule and usually has thrusters and a little fuel. It is just enough to propel it for a short time and send the capsule away from the rocket. It can be placed above capsule as a tower (as in Apollo) or be a part of capsule (as in Crew Dragon). LES doesn't have to be detachable from the capsule with crew, but if it is (as towers), it will be separated as soon as it runs out of fuel or when it is no longer needed. When LES finished working, capsule can land or splash with its own parachutes. Nowadays all crewed missions are equipped with some kind of launch escape system.

Etymology:

Launch – from Old French lancier– to fling, hurl, throw, castEscape – Old French eschaper– free oneself from confinementSystem – from Late Latin or Greek systema– an arrangement, organized whole, a whole compounded of parts

Sample Sentences:

The launch escape system provided a critical safety measure for astronauts in case of a rocket malfunction.

Translations:

French: Tour de sauvetage

German: Rettungsrakete

Italian: Sistema di fuga di lancio

Polish: Rakietowy System Ratunkowy

Swedish: Starta utrymningssystem

Russian: Система аварийного спасения

Ukrainian: Система аварійного порятунĸу

References:

McHale, S. (2014, February). Soyuz launch escape system. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20140221212224/http://suzymchale.com/ruspace/soyescape.html

Clark, S. (2010, February). Orbital sees bright future for Orion launch abort system. Retrieved from https://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1002/18orionlas/


Lenticular Galaxy

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


Source:


Short Definition:

A lenticular galaxy is a type of galaxy which contains a large-scale disc but does not have large-scale spiral arms.

Detailed Definition:

Galaxies can be divided into various types - spiral, elliptical, lenticular and irregular. A lenticular galaxy exhibits characteristics of both an elliptical and a spiral galaxy. It is determined by a central bulge and disks (as in the case of an ellipcital galaxy) combined with the absence of arms, which can be found in spiral galaxies just as the Milky Way. The name refers to the shape of the galaxy, which is very similar to a lens.

Etymology:

lenticular (lĕn-tĭk′yə-lər) - Latin lenticularis - having the shape of a double-convex lens

Sample Sentence(s):

"Lenticular galaxies tend to be old galaxies that have used up most of their gas and dust and are just living the twilight years."

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Galaxie lenticulaire

German: Linsenförmige Galaxie

Polish:  Galaktyka soczewkowata

Swedish:  Linsformad galax


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://scitechdaily.com/hubble-image-of-the-week-lenticular-galaxy-ngc-2655/

https://www.universeguide.com/fact/lenticulargalaxy

https://www.thoughtco.com/lenticular-galaxies-structure-formation-3072047


Light Pollution

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 17:17)
Source: Law, L. (2015, February 25). Night sky with light pollution from Coachella Valley. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/115357548@N08/16026201013

Source: Law, L. (2015, February 25). Night sky with light pollution from Coachella Valley. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/115357548@N08/16026201013

Short Definition:

Light pollution is the effect of excessive or poor use of artificial outdoor light sources. There are several negative impacts from it: it disrupts both the human sleep and natural patterns of wildlife, it is a factor in the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and obscures the celestial bodies in the night sky.

Detailed Definition:

Light pollution, also referred to as luminous pollution, is the negative consequence of excess of artificial light and its misuse. There are several major repercussions to the increasing amounts of light in the night sky, such as sky glow, disruption of natural body rhythms in both human and animals, and the obscured ability of celestial object observation. The sky glow is the over presence of artificial light in densely populated areas after sunset, which results in disruptions of melatonin hormone in humans, causing sleep deprivation, fatigue, headaches, stress, and anxiety. Studies indicate a connection between the low melatonin levels and cancer. Light pollution also impacts the behaviour of animals, such as migration patterns, wake-sleep habits and habitat formation. Sky glow impairs the research of the night sky, obscuring stars and other celestial bodies.

Etymology:

"light" - Old English leht, West Saxon leoht, German Licht - brightness, radiant energy, that which makes things visible

"pollution" - Late Latin pollutionem, Latin polluere - defilement, to soil, defile, contaminate

Sample Sentence(s):

"Light pollution disrupts astronomers in their study of space."

"It is increasingly difficult to appreciate the beauty of the evening sky, as the light pollution obscures the visibility of stars."

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Pollution lumineuse

German: Lichtverschmutzung

Polish: Zanieczyszczenie światłem

Swedish: Ljusförorening


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/light-pollution

https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/mapmaker-light-pollution

https://planetfacts.org/light-pollution/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UdIGJNVUwmE

Liu Yang

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 17:19)


Short Definition
Liu Yang is a taikonaut, a term used for Chinese astronauts, and a military transport pilot. She was born on October 6, 1978, in Zhengzhou, China. Today she is known for being the first Chinese woman to venture into space, achieving this milestone on June 16, 2012, as part of the Shenzhou 9 mission.


Detailed Definition

Liu Yang is an only child who was born into a working-class family with roots in Linzhou, Anyang. Her journey towards the skies began soon after high school when she was encouraged by a teacher to pursue aviation. Joining the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force in 1997, she amassed an impressive 1,680 hours of flight experience, rising to the rank of major and deputy head of a flight unit. Notably, Liu Yang showcased her courage and skill when she successfully landed her fighter jet after a bird collision, an event that earned praise from state media.
In May 2010, Liu Yang was recruited into China's second class of prospective astronauts. Following two years of rigorous training, she demonstrated exceptional skills during testing, leading to her selection in March 2012 as a crew candidate for the Shenzhou-9 mission.

Soon after, on June 16, 2012, Liu Yang launched into space, accompanied by commander Jing Haipeng and operator Liu Wang. This milestone mission marked China's first successful crewed space docking with the Tiangong 1 space module. During the mission, Liu Yang took charge of conducting medical experiments.

Etymology
N/A

Sample Sentence(s)

"[…] having Liu Yang on board will not only help the country's aspiring space program test equipment designed for women in preparation for the building of an orbiting space station, but it will also expand the social impact of human space missions." Wolchover, N. (2012, June 15). Who Is China’s First Female Astronaut? livescience.com. https://www.livescience.com/34002-china-female-astronaut.html

 

Links to Videos/Articles:

●       Wolchover, N. (2012, June 15). Who Is China’s First Female Astronaut? livescience.com. https://www.livescience.com/34002-china-female-astronaut.html

●       China’s first female astronaut ready for new space mission. (2022, June 4). CGTN. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2022-06-04/China-s-first-female-astronaut-ready-for-new-space-mission-1aAKaX706GI/index.html

●       Gregersen, E. (Invalid Date). Liu Yang. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Liu-Yang

●       CGTN. (2022, September 6). Liu Yang: No preferential treatment for being a woman in space [Video]. YouTube.

 

 


Low Earth orbit

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 26 września 2023, 17:20)
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orbitalaltitudes.svg

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orbitalaltitudes.svg

Short Definition:

The Low Earth Orbit (in short, LEO) is an orbit that is relatively low compared to typical space orbits. An object orbiting Earth above 100 km and below 2000 km can be described as orbiting on Low Earth Orbit. In terms of orbiting time, a low Earth orbit have an orbiting period of 128 minutes or less. Low Earth Orbit is often used as temporary orbit for spacecrafts travelling further into space. 

Detailed Definition:

The Low Earth Orbit (LEO in short) is a zone around Earth from a 100 km (Kármán line) to about 2000 km above Earth's surface. Due to orbits shape varying from circles to ellipses, better description is done using time. A body orbiting at the Low Earth Orbit has an orbiting time around 128 minutes or less. The pull of gravity in the LEO is only slightly less than on the Earth's surface, and the orbiting body still encounters atmospheric drag from present gas particles. Due to this, the LEO is often used as a transitive stage for spaceships traveling further into space, as the mean orbital velocity needed to maintain a stable low Earth orbit is about 7.8 km/s, rather than being used as a stable orbit due to constant need of course correction. The most famous spacecraft orbiting in the LEO is the International Space Station, orbiting at around 400 km above Earth’s surface.

Etymology:

Low - From Middle English lowe, lohe, lāh, from Old Norse lágr (“low”)
Earth - From Middle English erthe, from Old English eorþe ("ground, soil, dirt")
Orbit - From Middle English orbite, orbita, from Latin orbita (“course, track, impression, mark”)

Sample Sentence(s):

"The International Space Station is the largest modular space station currently in the Low Earth Orbit."
"The Low Earth orbit requires the lowest amount of energy for satellite placement."

Translations:

French: 

Orbite terrestre basse

German:

Niedrige Erdumlaufbahn

Polish:

Niska orbita okołoziemska

Swedish:

Låg omloppsbana

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2020/03/Low_Earth_orbit
https://www.space.com/low-earth-orbit

Lunar regolith

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:26)

Image/Video/Audio:

Image/Video/Audio: Image/Video/Audio Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Apollo_11_bootprint.jpg

Image/Video/Audio Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Apollo_11_bootprint.jpg

Short Definition:

Lunar regolith is a thin, powdery layer of soil on the lunar surface. It consists of dust, broken rocks and other materials found on the ground. It covers nearly the entire surface of the Moon, Mars and other celestial bodies in our Solar System.


Detailed Definition:

Lunar regolith comes in the form of dust and small rocks. It is made up of ~45% oxygen, the rest are elements like silicone, iron, magnesium, calcium, chromium and sodium. What differs between the Moon and Earth regolith is the mechanical weathering that lunar soil went through. It was formed over billions of years by constant meteorite impacts on the surface of the Moon. It is estimated that it extends from 5 to 15 metres deep in the ground.


Etymology:

from Greek - rhegos (“blanket”) and lithos (“rock)



Sample Sentence(s):

Astronauts who were on the Moon claimed that lunar regolith sticks to the spacesuits and has the ability to wear them down. 

One of the most famous pictures from space is one of an astronaut footprint in the lunar regolith.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

régolithe lunaire


German:

Mond-Regolith


Polish:

regolit księżycowy


Swedish:

månens regolit


Links to Videos/Articles:

Lunar Theory

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:29)

Image/Video/Audio: Image/Video/Audio Source: Newton, I. (1687, January 1). Isaac Newton's diagram from the 'Principia' of 1687 (Book 3, Proposition 25, at p.434). wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:096-newt1687-figp434.jpg

Image/Video/Audio: Image/Video/Audio Source: Newton, I. (1687, January 1). Isaac Newton's diagram from the 'Principia' of 1687 (Book 3, Proposition 25, at p.434). wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:096-newt1687-figp434.jpg

Short Definition:

Lunar Theory is the measurement and prediction of the movements of the moon as a method of a priori deduction with the principles of the laws of gravity. For the first time in the modern era, Isaac Newton mentioned in his book Principia in 1687 that the motion of the moon could be calculated mathematically by the law of gravity.

Detailed Definition:

Lunar theory, the theory that the movements of the moon can be calculated by gravitational laws, put forward by Isaac Newton in 1687, is a cumulative result of moon observations that found their roots in ancient Babylonian, Greek and Arabian geography. In his book, Newton's Principia, he made the first inferences about how the gravitational motion of the Earth and Moon towards the sun could be measured mathematically. With the development of technology, especially after the 1960s, lunar theory has been retested with the help of automatic digital computation and modern observational data-types. With computer-assisted algebra, new analytical developments have been experienced, and new analytical theories have been created.

Etymology:

Lunar – Latin (lūnāris)

Theory – Ancient Greek (theōréō )

(lunar - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/lunar)

(theory - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/theory)

Sample Sentence(s):

‘’These views, however, are due to a lack of understanding of the close relation that exists between the kinematical model of Horrocks, and the dynamical lunar theory of Newton.’’

(Newton’s lunar theory. (n.d.). http://physics.ucsc.edu/. http://physics.ucsc.edu/~michael/koll.html)

‘’Newton's dynamics, and his lunar theory especially, were difficult for his contemporaries and they are perhaps even more difficult now.’’

(Success and failure in newton’s lunar theory. (n.d.). Oxford Academic. https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article/41/6/6.21/225623)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Théorie lunaire

German:

Mondtheorie

Polish:

Teoria Księżyca, teoria ruchu Księżyca

Swedish:

Månteori

Turkish:

Ay Teorisi

Links to Videos/Articles:

Newton’s lunar theory. (n.d.). http://physics.ucsc.edu/. http://physics.ucsc.edu/~michael/koll.html

ScienceClic English. (2019, January 5). Newton’s Gravity [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OE5LBi7hZkU

Success and failure in newton’s lunar theory. (n.d.). Oxford Academic. https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article/41/6/6.21/225623


M

Manipulator

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


source of image:


Short definition:

A robot manipulator is a multi-segmented electronically controlled mechanism that performs tasks by interacting with its surroundings. They are also commonly known as robotic arms. They are widely used in the industry to assist workers to deal with radioactive or biological hazard materials, moving or lifting objects that are too heavy. 

Detailed Definition:

A manipulator is a tool used in robotics to move objects around without the operator having to touch them directly. They have been used in a variety of applications, including robotic surgery, welding automation, and space travel. It is an arm-like device made up of several sliding or jointed segments known as cross-slides that can grip and move items with a variety of degrees of freedom.

A manipulator is a lift-assist device used in industrial ergonomics to assist workers in lifting, moving, and placing objects that are too heavy, too hot, too big, or otherwise too challenging for one worker to handle manually.  A column boom manipulator is utilized in welding to improve deposition rates, decrease human error, and lower costs in a manufacturing environment.

Furthermore, manipulator tooling allows the lift assist to pitch, roll, or spin the part for proper placement. For example, removing a part from a horizontal press and pitching it up for vertical placement in a rack, or rolling a part over to expose the back of the part.

Sample sentence:

6-axis robotic manipulators are the most commonly seen in industry because their range of motion is similar to the human arm. 

Chinese:

机械手

French: 

Manipulatrice (feminine)
Manipulateur (masculine)

German:

Manipulator

Polish:

Manipulator

Swedish:

Manipulator

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Figure-1-1-Standard-robot-manipulators-1_fig1_330599518

Mars

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:37)
Source: Midjourney (2023, May 24). Artistic AI Illustration of a martian landscape. midjourney. midjourney.com

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 24). Artistic AI Illustration of a martian landscape. midjourney. midjourney.com

Definition:

The second smallest planet in the Solar System (6792,4 km in diameter), the fourth planet from the Sun, also referred to as the Red Planet.


Etymology:

The planet is named after Mars,the ancient Roman god of war.


Translations:

  • English: Mars    [ˈmɑːrz]
  • French: Mars    [maʁs]
  • German: Mars (masc.)    [mars]
  • Polish: Mars
  • Russian: Марс (masc.)    [mars]
  • Swedish:

Mars Habitat

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:38)


Image/Video/Audio Source: 

Short Definition:

A Mars habitat is a proposed idea to colonize Mars and establish an autonomous colony. The horrid conditions of Mars will pose an almost insurmountable problem, where concrete solutions still elude us. In theory, Elon Musk said that a crewed landing would occur in 2029, which Is still 6 years away, but this seems to be an unachievable goal in the near future.

Detailed Definition:

A Mars habitat would be a habitat on Mars where humans’ strife to be self-sufficient. In some ways, Mars is even similar to the Earth, but it just differs in too many life essential conditions. The mean temperature on Mars only reaches -63°C and the average natural radiation levels are 40-50 times higher than on Earth due to the missing Ozone layer on Mars. These conditions would be enough to classify it as horrid, but the list goes on. Breathing normally is impossible due to the wrong gas composition, and even the ground you would walk on is cancerous. Another negative is the different gravitational pull, because Mars’ gravity only reaches 38% of the gravity on Earth, which will lead to muscle atrophy and the necessity of intensive sport programs.

These conditions would make an underground base under frozen CO2 that could be harvested from Mars and another layer of Mars soil a necessity to decrease the chance of getting cancer. At the start of the colony, only nuclear could be used as an energy option, because the varying conditions make others not effective and Mars as a whole is relatively energy poor.

To achieve self-sufficiency proves to be an insurmountable problem, because even food will be hard to produce, because the soil does not have the needed nitrogen compounds and the soil would have to be decontaminated. To make a Mars habitat is certainly possible, but the feasibility and the ethicality have to be called into question.

Etymology:

Mars come from older Latin (older than 75 BCE) Māvors which was used as god of war from Middle English

Habitat comes from Latin habitareà meaning habitat (it dwells)

 Sample Sentence(s):

Mars habitats would have to contend with surface conditions that include almost no oxygen in the air, extreme cold, low pressure, and high radiation. (Wikipedia)

French:

Habitat mars

German:

Mars-Habitat

Polish:

habitat marsjański

Swedish:

Mars livsmiljö

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-is-recruiting-for-yearlong-simulated-mars-mission/

Mercury

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)

Image/Video/Audio:




Image/Video/Audio Source:


Short Definition:

Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest one to the Sun. It is also the fastest planet to orbit the Sun, as the year only lasts for 88 days.


Detailed Definition:

Mercury has a rocky surface, covered with craters like the Moon. It also has a similar size. Because of its small mass, its gravity is also weaker, thus it has no rings or moons like other planets. Due to its closeness to the Sun, the surface is under a huge amount of solar radiation and high temperatures. Because of it, it is very unlikely to find a trace of life there. Even though it is a small planet and its rise time is close to the Sun one, it was already known during the Sumerian times, by the earliest known civilization. It was named after one of the Roman gods, Mercury, an equivalent to the Greek god, Hermes, the god of swiftly moving between the gods with messages, like this planet moves quickly and almost unnoticeably in the sky. 


Etymology:

from Latin Mercurius


Sample Sentence(s):

Mercury in astrology is associated with green colour. 

The Mahadasha of Mercury is called the budh Mahadasha.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

le Mercury


German:

Merkur


Polish:

Merkury


Swedish:

Merkurius


Links to Videos/Articles:



Meridian

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 13:39)

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meridian_(astronomy)

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meridian_(astronomy)

Short definition: 

An imaginary line in the sky running from due north to due south through the observer's location and the zenith.

Detailed Definition:

In astronomy, a meridian is an imaginary line in the sky that runs from due north to due south, passing through the observer's location and the zenith. The zenith is the point in the sky that is directly overhead. The meridian is used to measure the altitude of objects in the sky, as well as their right ascension and declination. The meridian also marks the boundary between the eastern and western halves of the sky, with objects east of the meridian being in the morning sky and those west of the meridian being in the evening sky.

Etymology:

Latin - medius ‘middle’ + dies ‘day’.

Sample Sentence(s):

"The planet Venus will cross the meridian at 8:00 pm tonight."

"The altitude of the North Star above the horizon can be measured relative to the observer's meridian."

"The meridian passage of a celestial object is the time it crosses the observer's meridian."

Translations:

French:

Le Meridien

German:

Höhepunkt

Polish:

Południk

Links to videos/articles:

https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/m/meridian

https://www.britannica.com/science/celestial-meridian


Meteor Crater (Barringer Crater)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:43)

Short


Short Definition
Meteor Crater, also known under the name Barringer Meteor Crater, is the first crater known to be caused by the impact of a meteorite. The crater caused 50,000 years ago was long thought to be volcanic until it was proven in 1961 that it was caused by the impact of an asteroid hitting earth.


Detailed Definition
The Meteor Crater is a crater caused by a meteorite impact 50000 years ago in the desert of norther Arizona, United States. This said impact caused a crater which is about 170 m deep and has a diameter of 1,200 m, surrounded by a rim that rises 45 m above the surrounding environment. The size of the asteroid causing the crater is said to have been 30 to 50 m long and scientist are not sure about the speed before the impact, but it is said to have been around 20kms. 

Found pieces of the asteroid are known under the Canyon Diablo Meteorite and can be seen among other things at the museum nearby. To this day, it is the best-preserved crater caused by impact to be found. Because of that, scientist have done much research inside and astronauts have been trained there. Today it is part of a museum and can be visited.

Etymology
The Barringer Crater has been named after Daniel M. Barringer, the first person to suggest the crater was caused by meteorite impact.
Meteor Crater Natural Landmark. (2023, May 23). The Meteor Crater | Meteor Crater | Barringer Space Museum. Meteor Crater | Barringer Space Museum. https://meteorcrater.com/attraction/az-meteor-crater/ter/

Sample Sentence(s):
"Nestled on its north rim, Meteor Crater Visitor Center is one of the most popular attractions in Northern Arizona."
 

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages
French: Meteor Crater
Links to Videos/Articles
German: Barringer-Krater
Italian: Meteor Crater
Polish: Krater Meteorytowy (Krater Barringera)
Swedish: Barringerkratern
 
Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Lang...
Spanish: Cráter Barringer

Danish: Barringerkrateret
Croatian: Barringerov krater

 

Other sources/links:

●       Meteor Crater Natural Landmark. (2023a, May 23). Meteor Crater | Barringer Space Museum | Winslow, AZ. Meteor Crater | Barringer Space Museum. https://meteorcrater.com/

●       AZFamily, Arizona News. (2019, July 22). How Arizona’s meteor crater was created [Video]. YouTube.

●       Meteor Crater, Arizona, USA | NASA Solar System Exploration. (n.d.). NASA Solar System Exploration. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/2257/meteor-crater-arizona-usa/

 

 


Meteorite

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 13:42)


Short definition: A meteorite is a piece of rock or metal originating from space that has landed on the Earth’s surface. Before a meteorite enters the Earth’s atmosphere, it’s called a meteoroid. The phenomenon of a meteoroid burning up and leaving a glowing trail behind is called a meteor.

Detailed definition: A meteorite is a piece of debris, usually of a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that has survived its passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and reached the surface. Meteorites vary greatly in size: some, that are called micrometeorites, are less than 1mm in size, and very few are large enough to leave an impact crater. The biggest meteorite ever found - the Hoba meteorite in Namibia - weighs about 60 tons. Most meteorites are stony, and only about 6% of meteorites are iron meteorites or a mix of stone and metal. 


Etymology: meteor (from Greek ta meteōra"the celestial phenomena, things in heaven above") + -ite

Sample sentence(s): Commonly, chondrules can make up 75% of the volume of the meteorites in which they occur. (Source: Cambridge English Corpus | Cambridge University Press | ELT. (n.d.). Cambridge.es. https://www.cambridge.es/en/)


Translations: French: météorite

German: Meteorit

Italian: meteorite

Polish: Meteoryt

Swedish: Meteorit


Links to Videos/Articles:

Alexander, C. M., & Wetherill, G. W. (2023, May 11). Meteorite | Definition, Types, Identification, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/meteorite

meteorite. (n.d.). https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/meteorite/

Science with Thomas Stevenson. (2022, August 9). What is a Meteorite? [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Cv82yiksbl8


Meteoroid

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 13:43)


Short definition: A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in space that has not yet entered the Earth's atmosphere. When a meteoroid enters the Earth’s atmosphere at a high speed and burns up, it leaves a glowing trail, which is called a meteor.

Detailed definition: Meteoroids are defined as objects significantly smaller than asteroids, ranging in size from grains to objects up to a meter wide. Objects smaller than meteoroids are called micrometeoroids or space dust. Most meteoroids are fragments from comets or asteroids, containing extraterrestrial nickel and iron.
When meteoroids enter the Earth’s atmosphere at a high speed (usually over 20 km/s), due to aerodynamic heating they leave a glowing trail, which is widely known as a “shooting star”. This phenomenon is called a meteor. If a meteoroid survives its passage through the Earth’s atmosphere and lands on the surface, it’s called a meteorite.

Etymology: Meteoroid comes from meteor + -oid. -oid is a suffix coming from Ancient Greek εἶδος (eîdos, “form, likeness”), which means “resembling; having the likeness of”.

Sample sentence(s): It was found that meteoroids from cometary sources were typically of porous, aggregate compositions with relatively low densities. (Source: Cambridge English Corpus | Cambridge University Press | ELT. (n.d.). https://www.cambridge.es/en/)

Translations:

French: Météoroïde

German: Meteoroid

Italian: Meteoroide

Polish: Meteoroid

Swedish: Meteoroid

Links to Videos/Articles: 

Atkinson, N. (2018, April 8). What Is The Difference Between Asteroids and Meteorites? - Universe Today. Universe Today. https://www.universetoday.com/36398/what-is-the-difference-between-asteroids-and-meteorites/

Meteors & Meteorites. (n.d.). NASA Solar System Exploration. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/asteroids-comets-and-meteors/meteors-and-meteorites/overview/?page=0&per_page=40&order=id+asc&search=&condition_1=meteor_shower%3Abody_type

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2019, January 2). DEMYSTIFIED: What’s the difference — meteoroids, meteors, & meteorites | Encyclopaedia Britannica [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/tXfjUxdzqBY


Microgravity

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)

 



Short definition: Microgravity, also known as micro-g environment, is when a person or object appear to be weightless but the g-forces are never exactly zero. A clear example of microgravity can be seen when astronauts or objects float in space.


Detailed definition: Microgravity, also known as micro-g environment, is a condition in which an object or a person appear to be weightless, though the g-forces are never exactly zero. "Micro" means “very small”, so microgravity refers to the phenomenon in which gravity appears to be very small. The effects of this condition can be seen when objects and astronauts float inside a spacecraft or outside, while on a spacewalk. 

Microgravity has a variety of effects on the human body. Muscles and bones, for example, can become weaker without having to work as hard. Furthermore, many things appear to behave differently in microgravity. Fire burns in different ways. Flames are more round when the pull of gravity is absent. There is a better growth of crystals. Their shapes are more perfect without gravity.


Etymology: 

“Micro” from ancient greek mikrós/“small” + “gravity” from Latin gravitās/“weight”


Sample sentences:
  • In micro-gravity conditions the cryogenic liquids are without a free surface existing in a slushy state between solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Experience ´with crystal growth in microgravity shows potential to yield much better results.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

  • FrenchMicropesanteur
  • GermanSchwerelosigkeit
  • Polish: mikrograwitacja
  • Swedish: Mikrogravitation
  • Spanish: Ingravidez

Sources:

https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-microgravity-58.html
https://www.snexplores.org/article/explainer-gravity-and-microgravity
https://www.britannica.com/video/163292/aspects-life-microgravity-Earth

Milky Way

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:45)
Source: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milchstraße#/media/Datei: Artist's_impression_of_the_Milky_Way_(updated_-_annotated).jpg 5th November 2021

Source: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milchstraße#/media/Datei: Artist's_impression_of_the_Milky_Way_(updated_-_annotated).jpg 5th November 2021


Definition:

A large spiral galaxy consisting of several hundred billion stars, dust and gas.The galaxy that includes our solar system, with the name describing the galaxy's appearance from earth: a hazy band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye.


Etymology:

The term Milky Way is a translation of the Latin via lactea, from the Greek γαλακτικός κύκλος (galaktikos kýklos), meaning "milky circle”.


Translations:
  • English: Milky Way (neutr.) – [ˌmɪlkiː ˈweɪ]
  • French: voie Lactée (f) [vwa lak.te]
  • German: Milchstraße (f) [ˈmɪlç.ˌʃtʁaː.sə]
  • Polish: Droga Mleczna [ˈdrɔ.ɡa ˈmlɛt͡ʂ.na]
  • Portuguese: Via Láctea (f) [ˈvia̝ ˈlakte̯a̝]
  • Russian: Млечный Путь [ˈmlʲet͡ɕnɨj ˈputʲ]
  • Swedish: Vintergatan  [ventərˈkɔɑːtan]

Moon

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:54)
Full moon Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FullMoon2010.jpg 25 Nov. 2021 Natural satellites Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_satellite#/media/File:Moons_of_solar_system_v7.jpg 25 Nov. 2021

Full moon Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FullMoon2010.jpg 25 Nov. 2021 Natural satellites Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_satellite#/media/File:Moons_of_solar_system_v7.jpg 25 Nov. 2021


Definition

The Moon (Luna, Selene, Cynthia) as Earth’s only natural satellite; moons as natural satellites


Etymology:

From Proto-Indo-European “mēnsis” meaning “month" -> Proto-Germanic “mēnōn” -> Old English “mōna”


Translations:
  • French: lune (f) [lyn]
  • German: Mond (m) [moːnt]
  • Polish: Księżyc [‘kɕɛw̃ʒɨt͡s]
  • Portuguese: lua (f) [‘lua]
  • Swedish: måne [ˈmoːˌnɛ]

Links to videos/articles:

Moon Base

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:47)
By SpaceMusk - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=76817044

By SpaceMusk - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=76817044

Short Definition:

A Moon Base is a type of facility on the surface of the moon, that could help us building up a colony on the moon.It could be the next frontier on our endeavour to become intergalactic and it could be a steppingstone to regions, that are not feasibly reached by spacecraft from earth, or it could become a centre for industry. In this way we could outsource industry or practices, that are not likely to become CO2-neutral soon.

Detailed Definition:

A Moon Base is a type of facility on the surface of the moon, which enables human activity on the moon.

As China and USA chose the same locations for their proposed moon bases, it could lead to the next smaller space race to the moon, only this time the mission would be to stay on it and to leave a small team to colonize the moon.

Ice from the poles could be melted to get Water and this in turn could be split by electrolysis to hydrogen and oxygen, which are the main ingredients for liquid rocket fuel.

The moon base could be used as a steppingstone to far distances because the rocket fuel needed to transport cargo from the moon is much lower than the earth due to the decreased escape velocity. So, a moon base could be used as a stopover to other proposed ideas like asteroid mining or it could help the Mars base.

To justify the high investment costs, the moon base needs to be economically viable sooner rather than later. The mining of important resources like aluminium, titanium, and helium -3, which is used to fuel fusion reactors, could be helpful, if it proves to be economically and ecologically viable.

A few suggestions could make this project much more autonomous by producing living soil from lunar regolith and mixing the moons soil, regolith and a plant-based glue to produce a 3D-printing material, which will prove to be absolutely essential for this kind of project.

Etymology:

Moon from Old English mōna

Base from Latin basis and from Ancient Greek βάσις (básis)

Sample Sentence(s):

A Moon base could help with making fusion reactors more efficient, by having a higher abundance percentage of Helium-3, which is used as a fuel in those reactors.

If a Moon base can prove to become autonomous, we could outsource some of our CO2- intensive industries to the moon, if it also proves to be economically viable

French:
base lunaire
German:
Mondbasis
Polish:
baza księżycowa
Swedish:
månbas

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=moon+base
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moonbase
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/nasa-s-artemis-base-camp-on-the-moon-will-need-light-water-elevation/

Moon Treaty

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:57)

Short Definition
The Moon Treaty is an agreement that the Moon, its orbit and other celestial bodies may not be used for military purposes. This treaty recognizes the Moon as a place of exclusively peaceful action.


Detailed Definition

The first discussions by the Legal Subcommittee on the Moon Agreement began between 1972 and 1979. However, the treaty itself did not enter into force until 1984.

No military bases can be established on the Moon under this treaty. Also, on its territory and orbit may not be any weapons of mass destruction. For the sake of this agreement, the Moon can only be used for friendly and non-destructive purposes. However, it does not prohibit military personnel from being on the Moon to support the lunar missions.

An important point of this agreement is that all parties are committed to informing the United Nations and the public about their activities research and planned bases on the moon. The last big point of this treaty is the recognition of the Moon as common heritage of mankind. This means that no country has the right to claim the natural resources of the Moon and use them as their profit.


Etymology

Moon (Noun.), originated from English Medieval word Mōna, that comes from Latin metri (to measure) and mensis (the month).

Sample Sentence(s)

Moon Treaty is an important Agreement, and its topics are still important discussion today.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Traité sur la Lune

German: Mondvertrag

Italian: Trattato sulla Luna

Polish: Traktat Księżycowy, Układ Księżycowy

Swedish: Månfördraget


Links to Videos/Articles:

  • United Nation Office for Outerspace (2014), Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Retrieved from https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/intromoon-agreement.html

  • NTI (n.d.), Moon Agreement, Retrieved from https://www.nti.org/education-center/treaties-and-regimes/agreement-governing-activities-states-moon-and-other-celestial-bodies-moon-agreement/

  • Yale University (n.d.), The Moon Agreement, Retrieved from https://energyhistory.yale.edu/library-item/moon-agreement

  • Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), moon (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/moon#etymonline_v_18330

  • Peak, T. (2014), Moonset, ESA, Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/Space_in_Member_States/Poland/Pierwsze_kroki_przed_powrotem_na_Ksiezyc


N

Nadir

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:51)
Media
Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003

Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003


Definitions

Short Definition
In astronomy, Nadir is a point on the celestial sphere that is directly below the
observer. The nadir is diametrically opposite to the zenith.

Detailed Definition
In astronomy, nadir lies on the intersection of the celestial sphere with the imaginary line passing from the observer through the centre of Earth. The direction of nadir matches that of the gravitational force. The nadir and the zenith form two poles of the horizon.

In medicine, nadir is predominantly used to describe blood cell counts at their lowest during chemotherapy. Each chemotherapy treatment comes with the nadir period. Figuratively, nadir means the lowest point and may be used to emphasize the state of one’s feelings, quality of activity and affairs.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin nadir, from Arabic naẓīr as-samt, composed of naẓīr
“counterpart, corresponding to” and as-samt“the zenith”

Sample Sentences

A nadir image is a satellite image or an areal photo of Earth taken vertically in the downward alignment.

During chemotherapy, the nadir time usually comes in about 10 days after the start of treatment, although this is mostly dependent on drugs given.

The relationship between the USA and USSR reached its nadir in the 1980s.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
le nadir

German
der Nadir

Italian
il nadir

Polish
nadir

Swedish
nadir

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages

Russian
надир

Ukrainian
надир

Links to Videos/Articles:

  • The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2018, February 21). Nadir | Definition & Astronomy. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://www.britannica.com/science/nadir
  • Definition of nadir. (2023). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/nadir

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 14 marca 2023, 13:48)


Source: https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/symbols-of-nasa.html


Definition:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency responsible for America’s civil space program, which aims to research areas of space for the benefit of humanity. 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration is a global leader in space exploration. It has 20 centres and facilities across the United States. Basic activities of the agency are studying the Earth, climate, Sun, Solar System and beyond. It conducts research (missions), testing and development to advance and develop space technologies. NASA's work also includes cooperation with U.S. industry, international partners, as well as with academia.


Sample Sentence(s):

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) unveiled its newest supercomputer, the Columbia, which is powered by 10,240 Intel Itanium 2 processors."
"These and other advanced concepts are being explored at the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Convergent Aeronautics Solutions program to help make possible new capabilities in commercial aviation."

Translations:
  • French: Administration nationale de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
  • German: Nationale Aeronautik- und Raumfahrtbehörde
  • Polish: Narodowa Agencja Aeronautyki i Przestrzeni Kosmicznej
  • Swedish: Nationella flyg- och rymdförvaltningen

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/

Nebula

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:52)


Source : Kirk, A. (2015, April 25). The Mighty Orion Nebula from New Zealand. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/67481624@N05/17243621226

Source : Kirk, A. (2015, April 25). The Mighty Orion Nebula from New Zealand. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/67481624@N05/17243621226

Short Definition: 

Any kind of giant cloud that includes miscellaneous gas and dust; especially hydrogen, cosmic dust, and helium located in outer space.

Detailed Definition

As the basic components of galaxies, nebulae were stars before they formed. During the formation phase of these stars, the gases released into space initiate a fusion reaction with hydrogen atoms and form the foundations of a new star. Thus, the universe continues to expand.

Etymology:  

Ancient Greek (νεφέλη nephélē): Cloud

Sample Sentences:

'Today the term nebula generally refers exclusively to the interstellar medium.'

'A nebula that is visible to the human eye from Earth would appear larger, but no brighter, from close by.'

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Nébuleuse

Italian:

Nebulosa

German:

Nebel

Polish:

Mgławica

Turkish:

Nebula

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://spacecenter.org/what-is-a-nebula/

https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/nebula/en/

https://www.space.com/nebula-definition-types

https://www.britannica.com/science/nebula

Neil Armstrong

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:53)

Short Definition
Neil Armstrong was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer. He was born on August 5, 1930, and passed away on August 25, 2012. In 1969, he was part of the Apollo 11 Crew, whose mission was to land on the moon. Today, he is famous for being the first person to walk on the moon.


Detailed Definition

Neil Armstrong, the eldest of three children, was born and raised in Wapakoneta, Ohio. His passion for aviation ignited at a young age when he took his first airplane flight at the age of six. This experience sparked his curiosity and fascination with flight and on his sixteenth birthday, Armstrong obtained his pilot's permit, marking the beginning of his journey in aviation. The following year, he became a naval air cadet, further pursuing his passion for flying.

After earning a degree in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University in 1955, Armstrong began working as a civilian research pilot for the organization that would later evolve into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

In 1962, Armstrong joined NASA's space program and 7 years later, on July 20, 1969, he made history by stepping onto the surface of the moon, saying his iconic words, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."

Following this achievement, Armstrong resigned from NASA in 1971. He then dedicated himself to teaching in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati until 1979.

He passed away in 2012 at the age of 82.

 

Etymology
N/A

Sample Sentence(s)

"Neil and Buzz's footprints will be on the Moon for millions of years, because there is no wind to blow them away.” Who was Neil Armstrong? (2022). BBC Bitesize. https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zhpchbk/articles/z4w3mfr

 

Links to Videos/Articles:

 ●      Who was Neil Armstrong? (2022). BBC Bitesize. https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zhpchbk/articles/z4w3mfr

●      Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (Invalid Date). Neil Armstrong. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Neil-Armstrong

●      NTD. (2012, August 25). Neil Armstrong - First Moon Landing 1969 [Video]. YouTube.

●      Banijay History. (2018, October 10). First Man on the Moon: The Real Neil Armstrong | History Documentary | Reel Truth History [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXTML_0DBDM


NEO (Near-Earth Object)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 22:59)
Source: Video from NASA explaining NEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-OCcFnp2RA

Source: Video from NASA explaining NEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-OCcFnp2RA


Short Definition:

NEO, or near-Earth object, is a celestial body which is in the size range of meters to tens of kilometres, that orbits the sun and approaches the earth within the distance of 1.3 AU (astronomical units).


Detailed Definition:

Among the 600,000 known asteroids, only 20,000 of them are NEOs. To be classified as such, the object must be natural and cannot be manmade. Some of them could potentially hit the earth and for this reason, some organisation keep track of them everyday. Historically speaking, NEOs have had an impact of the earths geological and biological history. Most of the NEOs are Apollo asteroids (55.4%), meaning that they come from the Apollo asteroid group. The second most common are Amor asteroids (36.4%), and third most common are Aten asteroids (7.7%).


Etymology:

Acronym of "near-Earth object."


Sample Sentence:

An astronomer would for example say during a lecture: “The Amor asteroid, 433 Eros, was the first NEO discovered in 1898, by D. Witt of Berlin, Germany, using a photographic plate to record its position.”


Translations:
  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: NEO (obiekt bliski Ziemi) 
  • Swedish:

Links to Articles/Videos:

Neptune

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:56)

Short Definition
Neptune is the eighth planet in our solar system and a gas giant characterized by its intense blue color. With its strong winds, reaching speeds of over 1,000 miles per hour, and its features such as dark spots and atmospheric disturbances, Neptune offers scientists a subject of study, providing insights into the dynamics and composition of outer gas giants.


Detailed Definition

Neptune is a gas giant, primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with a distinct bluish colouration that is a result of its atmospheric methane content. One of the defining characteristics of Neptune is its size. It has a diameter of about 49,500 kilometres, making it nearly four times the size of Earth. It is also the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-most massive planet in our solar system, with a mass seventeen times that of Earth. This immense size contributes to the planet's powerful gravitational pull, which has a significant influence on the surrounding space.
Neptune is known for its dynamic and violent atmospheric conditions. It experiences extremely high wind speeds, reaching astonishing velocities of over 1,600 kilometres per hour - the fastest in the solar system. These powerful winds create distinct cloud formations and atmospheric bands that can be observed from space. From its immense size and atmospheric composition to its fierce winds and intriguing dark spots, this gas giant remains a source of fascination and wonder.


Etymology

The name "Neptune" originates from Roman mythology. In Roman mythology, Neptune was the god of the sea, freshwater, and earthquakes. The planet Neptune was named after this deity due to its deep blue colour, reminiscent of the vastness of the sea.

 

Sample Sentence(s)


"Neptune is the only giant planet that is not visible without a telescope." Miner, E. D. (Invalid Date). Neptune. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Neptune-planet

 

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Neptune


German

Neptun


Italian

Nettuno


Polish

Neptun


Swedish

Neptunus

 

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Lang...

 Dutch

Neptunus

Turkish

Neptün

Spanish

Neptuno


Links to Videos/Articles:

●       Miner, E. D. (Invalid Date). Neptune. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/place/Neptune-planet

·       Moses, J. A., Cavalié, T., Fletcher, L. N., & Roman, M. R. (2020). Atmospheric chemistry on Uranus and Neptune. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 378(2187), 20190477. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0477 

●       In Depth | Neptune – NASA Solar System Exploration. (n.d.). NASA Solar System Exploration. https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/neptune/in-depth/

●       National Geographic. (2019, March 28). Neptune 101 | National Geographic [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NStn7zZKXfE

●       Astrum. (2016, October 13). Our Solar System’s Planets: Neptune [Video]. YouTube.

 

 


Neutron star

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:01)


Short Definition:

A Neutron star is a celestial body and is the collapsed core of a massive supergiant star that had a total mass of about 10-25 solar masses. Compared to other stellar objects, they are much smaller and much denser. Not counting black holes or hypothetical stellar objects, they are the densest stellar object in the universe.

Detailed Definition:

A Neutron stars is a stellar object, which is only a few kilometres in diameter, but has the mass of a star. So even compared to others stellar objects they have a mind-boggling density and are even so dense, that they are on the cusp of becoming a black hole. Stars hold an equilibrium between the force of gravity forcing plasma inwards, which in turn enables fusion of hydrogen to helium, and this releases energy that pushes outwards. So the equilibrium is directly linked to the amount of hydrogen available in stars. Breaking this equilibrium in our sun would result in it transforming to a red giant and then to a white dwarf. In those massive supergiant stars, gravity will prevail and will compress the core to the density of an atomic nucleus, which in turn forces heavier elements to fuse, and thus the outer layer will get bigger by a factor of x100. After a time the heavier elements are fused to iron and can not be fused any more, so the fusion activity will cease, and the star will collapse to its core. Electrons and Protons will be forced into each other and form Neutrons as dense as in atomic nuclei, where nuclei are so densely packed, they form a layer that is called nuclear pasta. Another interesting property is that they are spinning really fast, which empowers their magnet fields and gives them the strongest magnet field in our universe.

Etymology:

Neutron from Ne and uterà neutral +on ending from ion subatomic particle suffix

Star from Proto-Indo-European roothstḗr

Sample Sentence(s):

The physics in the core of the Neutron stars are still largely unknown and are still subject of speculation.

 Scientists were able to detect gravitational waves of two merging Neutron stars and confirmed the theory of Albert Einstein.

French:

Étoile à neutrons

German:

Neutronenstern

Polish:

Gwiazda neutronowa

Swedish:

Neutronstjärna

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udFxKZRyQt4&list=PLFs4vir_WsTwEd-nJgVJCZPNL3HALHHpF&index=16

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/neutron_stars.html

Nicolaus Copernicus

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:57)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus#/media/File:Nikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg Author : Unknown Year: (n.d.) Title: Nicolaus Copernicus Description: Portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus#/media/File:Nikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg Author : Unknown Year: (n.d.) Title: Nicolaus Copernicus Description: Portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nikolaus_Kopernikus.jpg

  

Definitions


Short Definition

Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer and mathematician of the Renaissance era. Copernicus proposed the theory of heliocentrism, which stated that the Sun was at the centre of the solar system. 


Detailed Definition

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543) was a renowned astronomer, economist, physician and mathematician of the Renaissance era. 
Copernicus is most famous for his theory of heliocentrism, which challenged the prevailing belief at the time that the Earth was the centre of the universe. Copernicus contradicted the idea that the Sun, not the Earth, was at the centre of the solar system, and that the planets orbited the Sun in circular orbits. Copernicus' revolutionary idea was expressed in his book, which laid the foundation for the scientific revolution that further development into modern astronomy.

Etymology
The name "Kopernik" is thought to be derived from the Old Slavic word "kopr," which means "dill." 

Sample Sentence(s) 

1. Before Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric theory, people generally agreed that the Moon and the Sun orbited the motionless Earth and that Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were beyond the Sun in that order.

Author : Britannica Year: (n.d.) Title: Nicolaus Copernicus Source: Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nicolaus-Copernicus


2. As I gazed up at the glittering constellations of stars, I couldn't help but think of the groundbreaking astronomer, Copernicus, who revolutionised our understanding of the universe with his heliocentric theory.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Nicolas Copernic

German
Nikolaus Kopernikus

Italian
Niccolò Copernico

Polish
Mikołaj Kopernik

Swedish
Nicolaus Copernicus

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Lang...

Russian : Николай Коперник

Links to Videos/Articles:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7740908.stm

Author : BBC News Year: 2008 Title: Poland honours Copernicus Source: BBC News Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7740908.stm 

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nicolaus-Copernicus

 

 


O

Orbit

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 27 września 2023, 14:58)
Image Source: MS Paint (2023, May 25). MS Paint Illustration of orbits. ms paint. ms paint

Image Source: MS Paint (2023, May 25). MS Paint Illustration of orbits. ms paint. ms paint


Short Definition:
An orbit is a periodical, elliptical trajectory that all objects floating in space follow.

Detailed Definition:
An orbit is the path that objects in space follow in a two-or-more-body system. Everybody in such system revolves around a common center of mass.  Usually, when talking about orbits, we think of two-body systems with one body much bigger than another. It appears like the smaller body is revolving around the larger one, but in fact both are revolving around a common center of mass.

Etymology: from Latin “orbita” meaning path.

Sample Sentence(s):
A new satellite was put in orbit.

Translations:

French:
Orbite

German:
Umlaufbahn

Polish:
Orbita

Swedish:
Bana

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-orbit-58.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cUe4oMk69E&list=TLGG8tIphgpDAHkxMzA0MjAyMw&t=1s

Orbit (entry exists but has poor description)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: wtorek, 22 sierpnia 2023, 13:35)


Image source: 

Short Definition:
An orbit is a periodical, elliptical trajectory that all objects floating in space follow.

Detailed Definition:
An orbit is the path that objects in space follow in a two-or-more-body system. Everybody in such system revolves around a common center of mass.  Usually, when talking about orbits, we think of two-body systems with one body much bigger than another. It appears like the smaller body is revolving around the larger one, but in fact both are revolving around a common center of mass.

Etymology: from Latin “orbita” meaning path.

Sample Sentence(s):
A new satellite was put in orbit.

Translations:

French:
Orbite

German:
Umlaufbahn

Polish:
Orbita

Swedish:
Bana

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/nasa-knows/what-is-orbit-58.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cUe4oMk69E&list=TLGG8tIphgpDAHkxMzA0MjAyMw&t=1s

Orbital Manufacturing

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:03)


The concept of orbital manufacturing visualized by a primate building space mission components with blocks.

Source:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Common_Chimpanzee_uses_cuboid_tool_in_the_lab.png

https://cdn2.picryl.com/photo/2010/08/17/overall-exterior-views-of-the-iss-during-undocking-and-flyaround-operations-1bdbdf-1600.jpg



Short Definition:

Orbital manufacturing refers to the production of various components required for space missions in orbit.


Detailed Definition:

In orbital manufacturing, parts, materials, and tools needed for space missions are manufactured in orbit around planets. This manufacturing capability provides a solution for sustainable, flexible missions and enables on-demand repair, fabrication, and recycling on critical systems. These capabilities provide tangible cost savings by reducing launch mass, as well as significant risk mitigation by reducing dependence on spare parts and/or oversizing systems for reliability. 

There are several advantages of manufacturing in space:

The effects of microgravity and vacuum in space enable the study and manufacturing of products that would otherwise be impossible to make on Earth.

When compared to launching all essential resources from Earth, the harvest and processing of raw materials from other astronomical bodies, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), could enable more sustainable space research missions at a lower cost.

Raw materials might be transferred to low Earth orbit and processed into products before being delivered back to Earth. This aims to preserve the Earth by replacing terrestrial production on the planet.


Etymology:

Orbit - Latin - orbita course, track, impression, mark”

Manu - Latin - manus “Hand”

Facture – Latin - factura  “Making”


Sample Sentence(s):

“Was this arm made using orbital manufacturing?” 

“Orbital manufacturing is particularly suitable for long space missions.”


Translations:
  • French: Fabrication Orbitale
  • German: Orbitale Produktion
  • Polish: Produkcja na orbicie
  • Swedish: Orbital Tillverkning

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/oem/inspacemanufacturing

P

Parabolic flight

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 18:08)

Source: https://www.esa.int/Education/Fly_Your_Thesis/Parabolic_manoeuvres

Source: https://www.esa.int/Education/Fly_Your_Thesis/Parabolic_manoeuvres


Definition:

Flight manoeuvre in which the aircraft alternatingly ascends and descends to achieve weightlessness or to simulate reduced gravity.

Parabolic flights are performed to train astronauts in zero-g manoeuvres, giving them about 25 seconds of weightlessness out of 65 seconds of flight in each parabola. During such training, the airplane typically flies about 40–60 parabolic manoeuvres. 

Initially, the aircraft climbs with a pitch angle of around 45 degrees, the sensation of weightlessness is achieved by reducing thrust and lowering the nose such that the aircraft follows a ballistic trajectory. Weightlessness begins while ascending and lasts all the way "up-and-over the hump", until the craft reaches a downward pitch angle of around 40 degrees.


Etymology:

from Ancient Greek παραβολικός /parabolikós/ “of or pertaining to a parable”


Translations:

  • English: parabolic flight (neutr.) – [ˌpær əˈbɒl ɪk flaɪt]
  • French: vol parabolique (m) - [vɔl  paʁabɔˈliːk]
  • German: Parabelflug () - [paˈʁaːbl̩ˌfluːk]
  • Polish: Lot paraboliczny () – []
  • Portuguese: voo parabólico (m) - []
  • Russian: параболический полёт (m) - [pɐrɐbəˈlit͡ɕɪskʲɪj pɐˈlʲɵt]
  • Swedish: Parabolisk flygning () - []


Parallax

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 18:12)

Media
Media Insight Observatory (n.d.). Star Parallax.

Insight Observatory (n.d.). Star Parallax.


Definitions

Short Definition
Parallax is an angular apparent shift in an object’s position when it is observed from two separate viewpoints. Half the angle between two lines of sight is the magnitude of parallax.

Detailed Definition
The principle of parallax is widely used to measure large distances, i.e. to far away stars and planets. The Stellar parallax method allows one to obtain measurements from trigonometric parallax. Observations of the celestial body are taken from two opposite points of the Earth’s orbit (with a 6-month gap), the apparent movement of the object is considered with respect to its distant background. An isosceles triangle with the base of 2 astronomical units is then formed by the lines of sight. The distance to the object is equal to 1 AU over the parallax angle measured.

Etymology
From Ancient Greek παράλλαξις (parállaxis)“alteration”

Sample Sentences

Eyes of live creatures with binocular sight, humans included, exploit parallax to perceive depth and measure distances.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
la parallaxe

German
die Parallaxe

Italian
la parallasse

Polish
paralaksa

Swedish
parallax

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages

Russian
параллакс

Ukrainian
паралакс

Links to Videos/Articles:

  • Pultarova, T., & Lucas, J. (2022). What Is Parallax? Space.com.
    Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://www.space.com/30417-parallax.html
  • Miller-Jones, J. C. A., Jonker, P. G., Dhawan, V., Brisken, W., Rupen, M.P., Nelemans, G., & Gallo, E. (2009). The first accurate parallax distance to a black hole. The Astrophysical Journal, 706(2), L230. Retrieved [ 06.20.2023 ], from https://academic.oup.com/pasj/article-abstract/66/2/38/1518056

Parsec

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 18:26)
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Parsek_pl.png

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Parsek_pl.png

Short Definition:

The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure the large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System. Parsec is approximately equal to 3.26 light-years or 206,000 astronomical units (symbol: AU), or 30.9 trillion kilometers. As an example, the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is about 1.3 parsecs from the Sun. Most stars visible to the naked eye are within a few hundred parsecs of the Sun, with the most distant at a few thousand.

Detailed Definition:

A Parsec is the distance for which the annual parallax of the position of the Earth, viewed perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, is 1 arc second (arcsec). A parsec can equally be described as the distance from which half of the Earth's orbital major axis (equal to 1 AU) is visible as an arc of 1 arcsecond. Although distance equal to one parsec is tremendous still, multiples of parsecs are required for the larger scales in the universe, including kiloparsecs (kpc) for the more distant objects within and around the Milky Way, megaparsecs (Mpc) for mid-distance galaxies, and gigaparsecs (Gpc) for many quasars and the most distant galaxies. The term parsec is a combination of "parallax" and "arcsecond," which derives from the use of triangulation when measuring the distance between two stars. 

Etymology:

Combination of words parallax and arcsecond
Paralax - from Ancient Greek parállaxis, (“alteration”)
Second -  from Latin secundus (“following, next in order”)

Sample Sentence(s):

"Distance to the nearest star is about 1.3 parsecs."
"Sci-fi franchises have been known to misuse the word parsec, mistakenly describing it as a measurement of time or speed."

Translations:

French: 

Parsec

German:

Parsec

Polish:

Parsek

Swedish:

Parsec

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://earthsky.org/space/what-is-a-parsec/



Perihelion

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 18:35)

Diagram of a body's direct orbit around the Sun, with its nearest (perihelion) and farthest (aphelion) points. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsis#/media/File:Perihelion-Aphelion.svg

Diagram of a body's direct orbit around the Sun, with its nearest (perihelion) and farthest (aphelion) points. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsis#/media/File:Perihelion-Aphelion.svg

Short Definition:

Perihelion is the farthest point in the orbit of a planetary body about the Sun. This point is present in every Solar System orbiting body orbit due to the fact all orbits are elliptical. 

Detailed Definition:

Perihelion is the farthest point in the orbit of a planetary body about the Sun in the Solar System. In case of describing generic star orbiting system, such point is called an apsis as the farthest point in the orbit of a planetary body about its primary body. For bodies moving around the Sun in a stable elliptical orbit, the perihelion is crossed at regular intervals, every orbital period. At perihelion, the Earth is 147.1 million km (0.9833 au) from the Sun. This usually takes place between 2nd and 4th January and occurs at a slightly different time each year due to interference from other celestial bodies.

Etymology:

From Proto-Indo-European *per- (“before, in front; first”) + ἥλιος (hḗlios, “sun”) +‎ -on (suffix forming nouns) (from Ancient Greek -ον (-on))

Sample Sentence(s):

"If the comet's perihelion (its closest point to the sun) coincides with the shower's peak, a rare meteor storm can occur, creating thousands of meteor showers per hour."

- Skyler Caruso, Peoplemag, 4 Oct. 2022

"Earth makes its closest past on Jan. 4, which is called perihelion."

- Dave Epstein, BostonGlobe.com, 4 July 2022

Translations:

French: 

Périhélie

German:

Perihel 

Polish:

Peryhelium

Swedish:

Perihelium

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.space.com/what-is-perihelion

Perseids Meteor Shower

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 18:42)
Source: Sutton, B. (2015, August 19). Perseid Meteor Shower over the Ocotillo Patch; 8/12/15. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/115357548@N08/20713070995

Source: Sutton, B. (2015, August 19). Perseid Meteor Shower over the Ocotillo Patch; 8/12/15. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/115357548@N08/20713070995


Definition:

A meteor shower that recurs annually between the July 17th, and August 24th, with a peak of shooting stars in the days around August 12th.

They have a high velocity (60 km/s) and, as so-called fireballs, can even reach the brightness of Venus. The radiant, apparent origin of this shower, lies in the eponymous constellation Perseus, near its border with Cassiopeia.


Etymology:

from Greek Περσείδαι “Perseidai”, the sons of Perseus in Greek mythology


Translations:
  • English: Perseids – [ˈpɝ.si.ɪds]
  • French: Perséides – []
  • German: Perseiden – []
  • Polish: Deszcz Perseidów – []
  • Russian: Персеиды – []
  • Swedish: Perseiderna – []

Links to Videos/Articles:

Perseid meteor shower on NASA TV 2015 (4 hours)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIvVLyltJe8

Phobos

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:07)



Definition:


Etymology:

Named after Phobos, the ancient Greek god of fear, twin brother of Deimos, son of Ares (the equivalent of the Ancient Roman god of war Mars).


Translations:
  • English: Phobos    [ˈfoʊbɒs]
  • French: Phobos    []
  • German: Phobos (m)    []
  • Polish: Fobos
  • Russian: Фобос (m)    [ˈfobəs]
  • Swedish:

Photometer

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:00)
Source: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/04/Photometer

Source: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/04/Photometer

Short Definition:

A photometer is an instrument used to measure the strength of electromagnetic radiation. It is the primary tool used in the field of photometry, a field that focuses on the study of the emitted intensity of the electromagnetic radiation of an astronomical body.

Detailed Definition:

One of the devices used in the research electromagnetic radiation is the photometer. The most crucial component of the photometer is a photoresistor, photodiode, or photomultiplier, varying on the type of the photometer, which is responsible for the conversion of light into electric current. Among others, photometers most commonly measure illuminance, irradiance, light absorption, fluorescence, and luminescence. Most of the photometers measure light by the incoming flux, however, photon counting is also a viable technique. Light detection occurs after the light passes through a filter, which then distinguishes the respective wavelengths. Photometers are used in many medical, laboratory and industrial applications. Uses include the identification and quantification of chemical components, pharmaceutical quality control and astronomical calculations.

Etymology:

"photo-" - Greek, combining form of phōs (genitive phōtos) - word-forming element meaning "light"

"-meter" - French -mètre, Greek metron - word-forming element meaning "a measure"

Sample Sentence(s):

"Photometers are used to gather data for improved lunar calibration of Earth-observing instruments."

"A photometer is often used in conjunction with a telescope."

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Photomètre

German: Fotometer

Polish: Fotometr

Swedish: Fotometer


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://planetfacts.org/photometer/

https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-photometry-definition-process-uses.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95_yDQ9tAfs


Pillars of Creation

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:12)

Short Definition

The Pillars of Creation are a part of the Eagle Nebula that is located in constellation Serpens. They became popular when Hubble Telescope took first picture of them in 1995. The Pillars of Creation since then were revisited by various telescopes on multiple occasions throughout the years.


Detailed Definition
The Pillars of Creation are located 6,500 light years away from Earth and are part of a much bigger formation called Eagle Nebula. The pillars are only between 4 and 5 light years long, meanwhile the nebula they are located in stretches 70 to 55 light years long. Even though the nebula was discovered as early as 1745 by Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, the towers were captured first in 1995 by Hubble Telescope. The Pillars of Creation were photographed later on multiple occasions by different telescopes. Most recently, it was observed by the James Webb Telescope, giving us the first picture of them in infrared light.
The pillars became well known due to their distinguish features. The towers resemble buttes in the desert, which gives them a unique look that feels familiar to what we already know from the Earth’s scenery. Essentially, they are made out of dens hydrogen particles and gas. In the pictures of pillars, we can also see newborn stars that caste ultraviolet light.


Etymology
The name “Pillars of Creation” was inspired by a phrase used in “The Condescension of Christ” written by Charles Spurgeon in 1857.


Sample Sentence(s)

In Pillars of Creation, we can see new stars being formed.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Piliers de la création

German
Säulen der Schöpfung

Italian
Pilastri della Creazione

Polish
Filary Stworzenia

Swedish
Skapelsens pelare


Links to Videos/Articles:

  • NASA, ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (2018), The Pillars of Creation, Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-pillars-of-creation

  • Prakash, P. (2022), All about the Pillars of Creation, recently captured by the James Webb Space Telescope, Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/all-about-the-pillars-of-creation-recently-pictured-by-the-james-webb-space-telescope/article66040094.ece

  • Hubblesite (n.d.), Eagle Nabula ‘Pillars of Creation’, Retrieved from https://hubblesite.org/contents/media/images/3862-Image?keyword=eagle

  • NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI (2022), Pillars of Creation (NIRCam and MIRI Composite Image), Retrieved from https://esawebb.org/images/pillarsofcreation_composite/

  • ESA (2022), Hubble and Webb showcase the Pillars of Creation (side by side), Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2022/10/Hubble_and_Webb_showcase_the_Pillars_of_Creation_side_by_side


Planet

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:13)
Source: Starkiteckt (2016, June 30). Icy Planet. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/141051222@N04/27966261236

Source: Starkiteckt (2016, June 30). Icy Planet. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/141051222@N04/27966261236

Definition:

A large round celestial body orbiting around a star.


Etymology

From the Greek word “πλανήτης” (“wanderer”).


Translations:
  • English: planet    ['plænət] 
  • French: planète (fem.)    [pla'nɛt]
  • German:
  • Polish: planeta
  • Russian: планета (fem.)    [plɐˈnʲetə]
  • Swedish:


Planet Mars

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:10)

Term/Concept: 

Planet Mars

Image/Video/Audio:




Image/Video/Audio Source:



Short Definition:

Mars is the 4th planet in the Solar System, one of the closest neighbours of Earth. It is a red-coloured dot on our sky, with a diameter 2 times smaller than the Earth’s. Around it, there are orbiting two moons, Phobos and Deimos. 


Detailed Definition:

Mars’s surface colour comes from the rusty iron in the ground. It is considered as the future home of humanity, thus we explore it with rovers and plan space missions to send humans there. However, the conditions on the planet’s surface are quite hostile. It's further from the Sun than Earth, so the temperature is much lower, as it’s about -65 Celsius. Its atmosphere is mostly made of carbon dioxide (about 96%) with minor amounts of gases as argon and nitrogen. There is no life on Mars, however scientists claim that under its polar ice caps and in the deep surface are signs of still present water. 


Etymology:

from Latin Mārs (“god of war”), from older Latin (older than 75 BCE) Māvors



Sample Sentence(s):

The Opportunity rover has been exploring the surface of Mars for 15 years.

Mars’s year is almost 2 times longer than Earth's.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

le Mars


German:

Mars


Polish:

planeta Mars


Swedish:

Mars


Links to Videos/Articles:


Planetary geology

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:14)


Short definition:  Planetary geology is a science discipline that focuses on the geology of solid-surface celestial bodies, such as planets and their moons, asteroids and meteorites. It is also known as space geology, astrogeology or exogeology.


Detailed definition: Planetary geology is a relatively new discipline, having appeared in the 1960s. Some topics that planetary geology is concerned with are: studying and analysing the composition of celestial bodies to better understand their origins and history; determining the properties and processes in the internal structure of astronomical objects, such as their volcanism, impact craters and fluvial processes; classifying exoplanets based on their geology and composition. Planetary geology is closely linked with the Earth’s geology, and many planetary geology studies are conducted by comparing the geology of the celestial body with the Earth’s geology. One of the main aims of these studies is trying to figure out whether other planets are capable of supporting life.


Etymology: Even though the prefix -geo comes from Ancient Greek γῆ (, “earth”) and is mostly associated with topics related to the Earth, planetary geology is named as such for historical and convenience reasons.


Sample sentence(s): Planetary geology researchers at Harvard contribute to robotic space missions to other planets.


Translations:

French: Géologie planétaire

German: Astrogeologie

Italian: Esogeologia

Polish: Geologia planetarna

Swedish: Astrogeologi


Links to Videos/Articles:

Byrne, P. K. (2021). Planetary Geology. In Elsevier eBooks (pp. 37–51). https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-102908-4.00125-9


TAWNIA VANDERWOOD. (2019, August 20). Meet a Planetary Geologist [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/POMlppgXgM4

Point Nemo

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:14)
Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of point nemo. Midjourney. midjourney Space junkyard... Tags: space junkyard Keyword(s): Space Junkyard Probe (Last edited: Monday, 24 July 2023, 3:44 PM) Source: Todd, G. (October 2013). Mariner Space Probe. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/101561334@N08/10437025414

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of point nemo. Midjourney. midjourney Space junkyard... Tags: space junkyard Keyword(s): Space Junkyard Probe (Last edited: Monday, 24 July 2023, 3:44 PM) Source: Todd, G. (October 2013). Mariner Space Probe. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/101561334@N08/10437025414


Space junkyard...

Probe

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:15)
Source: Todd, G. (October 2013). Mariner Space Probe. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/101561334@N08/10437025414

Source: Todd, G. (October 2013). Mariner Space Probe. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/101561334@N08/10437025414


Short Definition:
A probe is a smaller spacecraft meant to explore the space, but will return to a space station upon return from the exploration.

Detailed Definition:
A probe's role is to study other planets and moons, perform scientific observations and gather data about the universe. It's an unmanned spacecraft that can be remotely controlled and monitored during its mission. Some famous probes include Voyager, Pioneer and Galileo probes.

Etymology:
From latin proba - meaning "proof"

Sample Sentence(s):
Voyager 2 probe was launched in 1977.

Translations:

French:
sonde

German:
Sonde

Polish:
Sonda

Swedish:
sond

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/parker-solar-probe
https://www.space.com/40437-parker-solar-probe.html

Q

Quasar

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 19:17)


Creator(s): Unknown Year: (n.d.) Title of image: Artist's rendering of ULAS J1120+0641 Description of image: Artist's rendering depicting ULAS J1120+0641, a distant quasar discovered in 2011. Retrieved from URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Artist%27s_rendering_ULAS_J1120%2B0641.jpg on May 29, 2023

Creator(s): Unknown Year: (n.d.) Title of image: Artist's rendering of ULAS J1120+0641 Description of image: Artist's rendering depicting ULAS J1120+0641, a distant quasar discovered in 2011. Retrieved from URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Artist%27s_rendering_ULAS_J1120%2B0641.jpg on May 29, 2023

 

Definitions


Short Definition

A quasar is an extremely bright and distant object in space that releases enormous amounts of energy. It is thought to be powered by a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy. Quasars were first discovered in the early 1960s.


Detailed Definition

A quasar, or quasi-stellar radio source, is an incredibly luminous and distant celestial object emitting vast amounts of energy across various wavelengths. Powered by a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy, quasars appear as star-like points of light but are located milliards of light-years away from Earth. They emit radio waves, visible light and X-rays, making them valuable for studying the early universe. Quasars' immense brightness provides insights into galaxy formation, black hole evolution, and the nature of spacetime. Despite their small size, quasars outshine entire galaxies and continue to captivate astronomers in their quest to unravel the secrets of these cosmic powerhouses.


Etymology

The term "quasar" is an abbreviation of the phrase "quasi-stellar radio source." It originated in the early 1960s when astronomers first discovered and studied these enigmatic celestial objects

Sample Sentence(s)

1. In 1963, the first measurement of the distance to a quasar — a radio source that looks like a star in visible light — showed it to be an enormously powerful beacon lying billions of light years away.

Author : Rober Antonucci, Year: (2013) Title of the article: Astronomy: Quasars at record distance Title of the Journal: Nature Volume : 495(7439) Page range: 165-166, Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/495165a on May 29, 2023


2. As a student studying concepts of space, I was fascinated to learn about the powerful and distant quasars that emit extraordinary amounts of energy, shedding light on the mysteries of the universe.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
un quasar

German
der Quasar

Italian
Quasar

Polish
Kwazar

Swedish
Kvasar

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Lang...

Russian: Квазар

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://youtu.be/djQfyhqrERw

https://www.britannica.com/science/quasar


R

Radiation

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:43)

Image:

Image: Source: https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Space_Engineering_Technology/Proba_Missions/Detecting_radiation

Image: Source: https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Space_Engineering_Technology/Proba_Missions/Detecting_radiation

Short Definition:

Generation of strong and hazardous energy that results from atoms being broken up.

Detailed Definition:

The full process through which energy is released by one body, transported across a space or other intermediary, and then absorbed by another body. The universe is full of radiation as it is a form of energy that is emitted in the form of rays, electromagnetic waves, and/or particles, which are found all over the cosmos. Radiation may be utilized cautiously to learn more about biological and mechanical systems, despite the fact that it can also be harmful to both of these systems.

Etymology:

Radiation comes from the Latin radiare, which means emit rays.

Sample Sentence(s):

High radiation doses are administered to patients during cancer therapy.

Alpha particles are an illustration of ionizing radiation.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: radiation

German: Strahlung

Polish: promieniowanie

Swedish: strålning

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/how-nasa-prepares-spacecraft-for-the-harsh-radiation-of-space

https://www.nasa.gov/analogs/nsrl/why-space-radiation-matters


Reaction control system

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:48)

Image

Image Shepard, A., NASA. (1972, December). Apollo 14 LM RCS quads. Retrieved form https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/LM_RCS.jpg

Image Shepard, A., NASA. (1972, December). Apollo 14 LM RCS quads. Retrieved form https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/LM_RCS.jpg

Short Definition

Reaction control system (RCS) is a system of low-thrust engines that is used to control orientation of a spacecraft in space (attitude control) and for fine position and velocity adjustments.

Detailed Definition

The reaction control system of a spacecraft consists of multiple low-thrust engines that are placed symmetrically on the spacecraft equidistantly from its barycentre to ensure even force and torque distribution. Thrusters can provide thrust in any direction and combining thrusters in different positions allows acquiring force in any direction or torque in any plane, which enables the spacecraft to perform translational motion in any direction and any of roll, pitch and yaw rotations. RCS is used for attitude control (for example, to keep a telescope pointed at one object for a long time), precise manoeuvring (for example, while spacecraft docking), orbit correction and other purposes.

Etymology

Reaction – re- (back, again, anew) + action (from French réaction)Control – from Anglo-French contreroller– exert authoritySystem – from Late Latin or Greek systema– an arrangement, organized whole, a whole compounded of parts

Sample Sentences

The spacecraft's reaction control system precisely adjusts the orientation and stability of the vehicle during maneuvers in the microgravity environment of space.

Translations in partner languages:

German: Reaktionskontrollsystem (RCS)

French: système de contrôle de la réaction (RCS)

Swedish: seaktionskontrollsystem (RCS)

Polish: system sterowania reakcyjnego (RCS)

Italian: sistema di controllo della reazione (RCS)

Translations in other languages:


Russian: Реактивная система управления

Ukrainian: Реактивна система керування

References

Colas, A. L., Valenzuela, J. G. (2020, August). Reaction Control System Performance Characterization using Vacuum Chamber Thrust Stand. Retrieved form https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/6.2020-3526

Boeing. (2006, November). ISS Motion Motion Control System. Retrieved from http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=34777.0;attach=586775


Reaction engine

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:49)

Image

Image U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG

Image U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG

Short Definition

A reaction engine is an engine that produces thrust by expelling reaction mass. It works in accordance with the third Newton's law of motion.

Detailed Definition

Reaction engines work in accordance with the third Newton's law of motion, stating that for every action force there is an equal by magnitude, but opposite in direction, reaction force. Thus, reaction engines apply force to the reaction mass, under which reaction mass accelerates and leaves the engine. As a result, the engine together with the vehicle are accelerated by the reaction force that makes the vehicle move. Jet engines and different types of rocket engines are reaction engines. In fact, this is the only engine capable of working in a vacuum, since there is nothing to propel a vehicle besides the fuel (reaction mass) carried by the vehicle itself, which makes those engines the only applicable to spacecrafts. Reaction engines have a broad application area that is not limited to space. For example, boats and ferries are often powered by reaction engines. But instead of a jet of heated gas, they expel water.

Etymology

Reaction – re- (back, again, anew) + action (from French réaction)Engine – from Middle English engyn or Anglo-Norman engine or Old French engin– skill, cleverness, war machine

Sample Sentences

The reaction engine utilized a combination of fuel and oxidizer to generate thrust for propulsion.

Translations from alliance partner languages:

French: Moteur de réaction
German: Rückstoßantrieb
Italian: Motore a reazione
Polish: Silnik reakcyjny
Swedish: Reaktionsmotor

Translations from other languages:

Belarusian: Рэактыўны рухавік

References

The European Space Agency. (2020, December). System study results for SABRE-powered reusable launcher. Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Space_Transportation/Future_space_transportation/System_study_results_for_SABRE-powered_reusable_launcher

Petrescu, R. V., Aversa, R., Apicella, A., Petrescu, F. I. T. (2018, January). Romanian Engineering, "On the Wings of the Wind". Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3844/jastsp.2018.1.18


Redshift

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:50)
Image Source: https://itu.physics.uiowa.edu/sites/itu.physics.uiowa.edu/files/2021-08/itu/redshift_galaxyspectra.png

Image Source: https://itu.physics.uiowa.edu/sites/itu.physics.uiowa.edu/files/2021-08/itu/redshift_galaxyspectra.png


Short Definition:

Redshift is a physical concept which describes a shift in the light spectrum towards the red part of the spectrum which is emitted by distant galaxies. Based on this phenomenon the Hubble Law was concluded which states that the velocity at which the galaxies receded were proportional to the distance and that the redshift increased with the distance.  


Detailed Definition:

This phenomenon was described as an effect of the Doppler shift when it was first discovered by Hubble.  

The Doppler shift is a effect where an observer which moves away from a light source can see light with a longer wavelength than the emitted light (redshift). If the observer moves towards the light source the light appears to have a shorter wavelength (blueshift).  

A characteristic of the universe which was concluded by Edwin Hubble by the redshift is that the Universe is expanding. 

The previously mentioned Hubble Law is the following cosmological velocity-distance law in a equation: velocity = Ho x distance. The variable Ho is the Hubble constant, which describes how fast the universe is expanding and isn´t yet measured.  


Etymology:

Red – German röthe (“redness, red”) 

Shift – Proto- Germanic skiftan (“to divide, change, seperate”) 


Sample Sentence(s):

“Red shift” is a key concept for astronomers.  

Relativistic, gravitational and cosmological redshifts can be understood under the frame transformation laws.


Translations:
French: Déplacement vers le rouge
German: Rotverschiebung
Polish: Przesunięcie ku czerwieni
Swedish: Rödförskjutning


Links to Videos/Articles:

RemoveDEBRIS Mission

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:22)


Source:https://www.airbus.com/sites/g/files/jlcbta136/files/styles/airbus_1440x1440/public/2021-10/Spacecraft_infographic.jpg?itok=IaLkM9ST)


Definition:

A mission under the supervision of the Surrey Space Centre of the University of Surrey (supported by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., Airbus Defense and Space, Innovative Solutions in Space, CSEM, Inria and Stellenbosch University) that aimed to find the best method of capturing and removing space debris. The project was based on a satellite containing several pieces of equipment (a net, a harpoon, a drag sail and vision-based navigation equipment, as well as a set of targets simulating space debris), which remained in orbit between 2018 and 2021.

The satellite platform for the project RemoveDEBRIS was launched using SpaceX Falcon 9, was delivered to the International Space Station and later deployed into orbit, where a series of experiments on debris removal were conducted, using several pieces of equipment:

  • a space net (ejected by the DebrisSat-1 at the distance of 7 meters from the target, aiming to entangle the targeted debris)
  • vision-based navigation equipment (the DebrisSat-2 is used to identify and track the debris)
  • a harpoon (firing at a 10*10 cm target extending from the platform at the distance of 1,5 m)
  • a drag sail (used to deorbit the platform itself – unfortunately, the sail was not fully deployed during the in-orbit demonstration)

Translations:

  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: Misja DEBRIS
  • Swedish:

Links to Videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLuHk5gWx3k

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_QUhCLTfXf0


Articles:

https://www.surrey.ac.uk/surrey-space-centre/missions/removedebris

https://www.airbus.com/en/products-services/space/in-space-infrastructure/removedebris

https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/r/removedebris

Rocket engine

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:52)

Image

Image NASA. (2000, January). RS-68 being tested at NASA's Stennis Space Center. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/images/content/148709main_d4_testing_08.jpg Photograph of a rocket engine in operation, with a converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

Image NASA. (2000, January). RS-68 being tested at NASA's Stennis Space Center. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/images/content/148709main_d4_testing_08.jpg Photograph of a rocket engine in operation, with a converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

Short Definition

A rocket engine is a jet engine that discharges a jet of high-temperature gas as reaction mass, which was acquired from the propellant stored internally in a vehicle. Rocket engines, unlike general jet engines, can only use internally stored propellant to create a jet, because they have to operate in space, where there is no medium like air or water which can be used as a reaction mass in jet engines on Earth.

Detailed Definition

A rocket engine is an internal combustion jet engine that discharges a jet of high-temperature gas as reaction mass, which was acquired from the propellant stored internally in a vehicle. Rocket engines, unlike general jet engines, can only use internally stored propellant to create a jet of gas as a result of chemical reactions, because they have to operate in space, where there is no medium like air or water which can be used as a reaction mass in jet engines on Earth. The nozzle is always an integral part of a rocket engine because it makes the jet accelerate as gas moves through the nozzle, and the higher the speed of a discharged jet, the more efficient the engine. The de Laval nozzle is the most common type of nozzles used in rocket engines, as it accelerates the gas passing through it most efficiently. Gas, when burnt, moves at a low subsonic speed and accelerates as it moves through the nozzle, reaching supersonic speed by the moment it leaves the nozzle.

Etymology

Rocket – from Old Italian rochetto– a bobbinEngine – from Middle English engyn or Anglo-Norman engine or Old French engin– skill, cleverness, war machine

Sample Sentences

The rocket engine ignited with a powerful roar, propelling the spacecraft into space.

Translations from our alliance partners' languages:

French: Moteur-fusée
German: Raketentriebwerk
Italian: Motore a razzo
Polish: Silnik rakietowy
Swedish: Raketmotor

Other language translations:
Russian: Ракетный двигатель
Ukrainian: Раĸетний двигун
Belarusian: Ракетны рухавік

References

Braeunig, R. A. (2012). Rocket propulsion. Retrieved from http://www.braeunig.us/space/propuls.htm

Oberth, H. (1972, January). Ways to spaceflight. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_19720008133/page/n35/mode/2up


Roscosmos

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: sobota, 30 września 2023, 23:24)



Definition:

Russian state corporation formed in 2015 and responsible for various aspects of the country’s space exploration activities (space equipment, infrastructure, international cooperation, etc.). The corporation is a legal successor of the Soviet space program which existed from 1955 to 1991 and Russian Space Agency founded in 1992.


Etymology

The name of the corporation “Роскосмос” consists of two elements: “Рос” (abbreviation for “Russian”) and “космос” (“space”).


Translations:
  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: Roskosmos
  • Russian: Роскосмос    [ˌroˈskosməs]
  • Swedish:

Rover

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:56)
Image/Video/Audio Source: Author: Kamila Kopacz

Image/Video/Audio Source: Author: Kamila Kopacz

Short Definition:

A Rover is a type of vehicle, operated autonomously or remotely, that is created for planet and moon exploration purposes. The most popular type of rover has 4–6 wheels, a frame and robotic arm with 2–6 degrees of freedom.


Detailed Definition:

A planetary rover is designed to explore an astronomical body (other than Earth). It is a device that was born out of human creativity and curiosity of the surrounding us world. As for now, humanity is limited by the technology we produce, we have only been able to send the rovers to the Moon and Mars. Because there is a limited distance you can remotely control a device, all the currently working in the space rovers are autonomous vehicles. It means they are programmed to explore the surface and collect soil samples for further analysis. The most recognizable rovers are the ones sent to Mars: Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity and Perseverance.



Etymology:

rover - /ˈrəʊvə/, Middle English: from Middle Low German, Middle Dutch rōver, from rōven ‘rob’; related to reave.



Sample Sentence(s):

In 2020 NASA sent another rover, Perseverance, on Mars. Its purpose is the exploration of Jezero crater. 

The winner of European Rover Challenge 2022 was Kalman rover from AGH Space Systems.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

rover


German:

der Rover


Polish:

łazik


Swedish:

rover


Other sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMMQUXrcOGY
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mars-Exploration-Rover

S

Satellite data

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 17:59)
Source: NOAA Images (2015, August 18). Hurricane Katrina as seen by NOAA satellite. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/77790740@N08/20676559362

Source: NOAA Images (2015, August 18). Hurricane Katrina as seen by NOAA satellite. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/77790740@N08/20676559362


Definition:

Satellite data, also referred to as satellite imagery, provides information about Earth and other planets in space, which are collected by man-made satellites in their orbits. Satellite data allow us to observe the Earth, as satellites deliver information about the surface and weather changes on the planet Earth.

Satellite data is generated via remote sensing technologies. In fact, it is very useful for providing authentic information about the atmospheres, oceans and land masses by constantly collecting  data from joined satellites.


Etymology:

The english word satellite derives from Latin satelles which means "accomplice, follower, attendant, or guard." There are natural satellites, e.g. the planet Moon which is following the Earth on a fix route, but also several artificial satellites which fulfill certain task, e.g. scientific or commercial.

Data is the classical plural of Latin datum which means (thing) given. In classical use originally ". From 1897 the term is referred to as "numerical facts collected for future reference."


Translations:
  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: dane satelitarne
  • Swedish:

Links to Videos/Articles:

Satellite etymology in English | Etymologeek.com

data | Etymology, origin and meaning of data by etymonline

Solar Eclipse

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: środa, 9 sierpnia 2023, 11:32)


Short Definition
A solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon that occurs when the new moon is positioned between the Sun and Earth. A solar eclipse is visible when the Moon’s surface covers the Sun fully or partially casts a shadow on Earth.


Detailed Definition

A solar eclipse is a natural process during which the Sun is completely or partially obscured by the Moon's surface, creating a shadow over Earth. However, this shadow is not large enough to be visible from all parts of the world in the same way. For this reason, each successive solar eclipse can be observed from different sides of Earth, but never in all places at once.

We distinguish four types of solar eclipses:

1. A partial eclipse occurs when the Moon only partially eclipses the Sun.
2. An annular eclipse occurs when the entire Moon is not large enough to conceal the entire Sun. In this case, a ring of light can be observed around the shadow.
3. A total eclipse occurs when the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. This can only be seen when the Moon is closest to Earth and only where the Moon’s shadow is the darkest.
4. An annular total eclipse (also called a hybrid eclipse) occurs when during the same eclipse it changes from the annular eclipse to the total eclipse or the other way around. This is the rarest type from all of those phenomena.


Etymology

Eclipse (Noun), originated from ancient Greek ἔκλειψις (ékleipsis) which means “the abandonment” or “the darkening of a heavenly body”.

Sample Sentence(s)

A solar eclipse cannot be visible from all the places on Earth all at once.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Éclipse solaire

German
Sonnenfinsternis

Italian
Eclissi solare

Polish
Zaćmienie Słońca

Swedish
Solförmörkelse

Links to Videos/Articles:

Hocken, V. (n.d.), What Are Solar Eclipses?, Retrieved from https://www.timeanddate.com/eclipse/solar-eclipse.html
NASA Science SpacePlace Explore Earth and Space (n.d.), What Is Solar Eclpise?, Retrieved from https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/eclipse-snap/en/
Dobrijevic, D. (n.d.), What is a solar eclipse?, Retrieved from https://www.space.com/15584-solar-eclipses.html
Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), eclipse (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/eclipse
Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), solar (adj.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/solar#etymonline_v_23841
ESA (2015), Europe’s solar eclipse seen from Proba-2, Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Videos/2015/03/Europe_s_solar_eclipse_seen_from_Proba-2  

Solar sail

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:00)
Source: Midjourney (2023, May 31). . midjourney. midjourney.com

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 31). . midjourney. midjourney.com

Short Definition:

Solar sails (also known as light sail or photon sail) are a method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by starlight on large mirrors. Solar sails can be used instead of traditional fuel consumption. First proposed in the 1980s as alternative propulsion method for low-weight long-distance spacecrafts, the first real usage of the solar sail system was in JAXA’s IKAROS mission, launched in 2010.

Detailed Definition:

The Solar sails use a phenomenon called solar pressure, which is the force produced by the impact of sunlight photons on the surface of the spacecraft. Normally, solar pressure is affecting all spacecrafts during flights and must be accounted for in trajectory planning, but in that specific case it is used as thrust. Vessels using solar sails must be lightweight as the total force exerted on an eight hundred by eight hundred meters solar sail is about 5 Newtons at Earth's distance from the Sun, so this propulsion method requires specially constructed spacecraft. If solar sails are implemented in space vessel it can produce propulsion without need of fuel usage and thus can be great for small satellites to travel to distant objects without great amount of storage for fuel and engines. The negative side of this technology is significantly small force compared to traditional liquid fuel engines and fragile sail build. Also, this system cannot be used far away from “propulsion” star, as thrust generated by the solar sail is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

Etymology:

Solar - From Latin sōlāris, from sōl (“sun”),
Sail - From Middle English saile, sayle, seil, seyl, from Old English seġl

Sample Sentence(s):

“The IKAROS probe is the world's first spacecraft to use solar sailing as the main propulsion system.”
“Solar sail is the more effective the closer it is to the star.”

Translations:

French: 

Voile solaire

German:

Sonnensegel

Polish:

Żagiel słoneczny

Swedish:

Sol segel

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305884757_Solar_sail_technology-A_state_of_the_art_review
https://global.jaxa.jp/projects/sas/ikaros/
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/solarsail/index.html

Solar Storm

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:01)

Media:

Media: File:Storms From the Sun (6819077978).jpg - Wikimedia Commons . (2005, April 24). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Storms_From_the_Sun_%286819077978%29.jpg

Media: File:Storms From the Sun (6819077978).jpg - Wikimedia Commons . (2005, April 24). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Storms_From_the_Sun_%286819077978%29.jpg

Short Definition:

A solar storm is a magnetic eruption happening on a star, causing a large burst of particles at very high speeds. This event is usually associated with visible arches on the sun.

Detailed Definition:

A solar storm is a phenomenon which is caused by a magnetic eruption on the Sun, which in hand happens due to increasing velocity of charged particles in the Sun's magnetic field. Such eruption, called a solar flare, shoots out mostly protons, which achieve speeds close to the speed of light. Such protons, while reaching the Earth's magnetosphere, they get guided towards both poles and lose their speeds. The occurrence of solar storm, has some negative effects on the earth, but most of the bursts, are light enough to be neutralized by the magnetosphere. The protons that manage to reach earth, usually disturb radio communications or other services and technologies which utilize waves.


Etymology

solar from Latin "solaris" or "sol" meaning "the sun". Storm from Middle/Old English "storm" meaning "a disturbed state of the atmosphere, especially as affecting the earth's surface".

Sample Sentence(s)

- The Solar storm is depending on the solar cycle, which lasts around 11 years.

- The solar storm disturbed the TV, I couldn't finish watching the game!


Translations:

French - tempête solaire

German - Sonnensturm

Italian - tempesta solare

Polish - Burza słoneczna

Swedish - solstorm



Sounding rocket

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:05)


AGH Space Systems' Skylark rocket launch in Drawsko  Pomorskie Source : Autor's photo

AGH Space Systems' Skylark rocket launch in Drawsko Pomorskie Source : Autor's photo


Short Definition:

Sounding rocket is a small, unmanned rocket that is meant to take measurements and perform scientific experiments on suborbital flights.


Detailed Definition:

A sounding rocket is a type of rocket that is used to carry scientific instruments to high altitudes for the purpose of collecting data. These rockets are typically smaller and less powerful than other types of rockets, and are launched vertically from a launchpad. The main advantage of sounding rockets is that they can reach altitudes of up to several hundred kilometers, allowing researchers to study the upper atmosphere and the effects of space on various materials and phenomena. Sounding rockets are often used for experiments in fields such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, and meteorology.


Etymology:

Sounding rockets take their name from the nautical term “to sound,” which means to take measurements. The term doesn't come from any latin or greek words.


Sample Sentence(s):

Next week, several sounding rockets will be launched from this site.


Translations:

French:

Fusée-sonde

German:

Höhenforschungsrakete 

Polish:

Rakieta suborbitalna, rakieta sądująca

Swedish:

Klingande raket


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weeEGY4SR38

https://www.nasa.gov/missions/research/f_sounding.html

Space debris

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:07)
Image source: Midjourney (2023, June 01). AI illustration of space debris in earths orbit. midjourney. midjourney.com

Image source: Midjourney (2023, June 01). AI illustration of space debris in earths orbit. midjourney. midjourney.com

Short Definition:
Space debris are man-made objects which are moving uncontrollably and quickly above the Earth at different altitudes. Space debris can cause significant damage to the orbiting satellites, space crafts, telescopes and space stations.

Detailed Definition:
Space debris are useless man-made objects in space. Examples might be everything from tiny flecks of paint released by thermal stress to the parts of a destroyed satellite or a dead satellite. The amount of space junk is gradually rising as the space activity is growing. To mitigate the negative impact of the debris on the working elements, space waste is divided into smaller parts. It is then either burnt in the atmosphere or sent to the graveyard orbit (especially larger objects like satellites that will no longer work). Space debris collides with each other generating more space waste. This increases the likelihood of further collisions and yields in a higher density of debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This is called the Kessler syndrome.

Etymology: 
space -> spatium from Latin - meaning: space
debris -> débriser from French - meaning: break down

Sample Sentence(s):
"The problem of managingspace debrisis both an international challenge and an opportunity to preserve the space environment for future space exploration missions."

Transaltions:
French:
Débris spatiaux

German:

Weltraummüll / Weltraumschrott

Polish:
kosmiczne śmieci

Swedish:

Rymdskepp

Spanish: 
Desechos espaciales

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://youtu.be/f513HPs24VM [Space Debris by the European Space Agency, ESA]
https://www.nasa.gov/news/debris_faq.html
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/hq/library/find/bibliographies/space_debris

Space graveyard

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:07)
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:S4-space-junk-045.jpg

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:S4-space-junk-045.jpg


Definition:

An area on Earth's surface or orbit in which decommissioned spacecrafts or satellites are discarded.


Etymology:


Translations:

  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: kosmiczne cmentarzysko
  • Swedish:


Space rendezvous

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:09)
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RENDEZVOUS_-_ARTIST_CONCEPT_-_GEMINI-TITAN_GT-VI_and_GT-VII.jpg

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RENDEZVOUS_-_ARTIST_CONCEPT_-_GEMINI-TITAN_GT-VI_and_GT-VII.jpg

Short Definition:

A space rendezvous is a series of orbital maneuvers focused on bringing together two orbiting spacecrafts. In most cases, a space rendezvous occurs between a space station and a spaceship trying to dock to it. Rendezvous requires a precise match of the orbital velocities and position vectors of spacecrafts, allowing them to remain at a constant distance during final maneuvers or docking.

Detailed Definition:

A space rendezvous is an approach in space to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact) between spacecrafts or between a spacecraft and a celestial object at zero or very low relative speed. The space rendezvous requires carrying out complex orbital maneuvers, which must be completed in a minimum time without excessive consumption of the propellant. Rendezvous may or may not be followed by docking or berthing, procedures which bring the spacecraft into physical contact and usually create a link between them. NASA's first attempt at rendezvous was made on June 3, 1965, when astronaut Jim McDivitt tried to maneuver his Gemini 4 spacecraft to meet the Titan II launch vehicle's upper stage. Rendezvous was first successfully accomplished by NASA on December 15, 1965, and then lead to success of Apollo's program and moon landing.

Etymology:

Space - From Middle English space, from Anglo-Norman space, variant of espace, espas et al., and spaze, variant of espace, from Latin spatium(“to stretch, to pull”).
Rendezvous - Borrowed from French rendez-vous (“appointment”)

Sample Sentence(s):

The first space rendezvous was in 1965 during Gemini program
The Shuttle Program saw more than 50 space rendezvous and docking missions

Translations:

French: 

Rendez-vous spatial

German:

der Raumfahrt Rendezvous

Polish:

dokowanie, połączenie się statków w przestrzeni kosmicznej 

Swedish:

Rymdmöte

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/worlds-first-space-rendezvous
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Astronauts/Rendezvous_and_docking

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNXPtZDS-cg

Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:10)
Source: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-canadarm2-robotic-arm-is-poised-to-capture-cygnus

Source: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-canadarm2-robotic-arm-is-poised-to-capture-cygnus

Short Definition: 

Ssrms is a manipulator system equipped with two long arms, seven attachment points, and various precision robotic equipment is also known as 'Canadarm2', it is a second-generation robotic arm system in the Mobile Servicing System of the International Space Station, whose main purpose is to take part in high-tonnage/cosmic catching missions. It is the most efficient heavy-duty robotic system (Up to 116 tons) left on the ISS after the Canadarm1 was retired in July 2011.

Detailed Definition:

It is a space manipulator attached to the international space station.As an improved version of the Canadarm 1, the Canadarm 2 is aimed at enhancing; size, load-carrying capacity, arm reach, durability, and increased mobility. It is a robotic system that assists astronauts with payload handling, approach and docking of space shuttles, making Cosmic catches, and maintenance of the station. The robotic arm, which can be managed by the astronauts on the ISS and the NASA and CSA centers on the world, is also adorned with advanced imaging-light systems. It is also used as an anchor point by attaching it to other robotic equipment itself.

Sample Sentence(s): 

''Canadarm2 is made up of parts that can be replaced while in space.''

''Canadarm 2 will also help to berth the Axiom Space Station modules to the ISS.''

Translations:

French

Système de manipulateur à distance de la station spatiale

Italian

Sistema di manipolazione remota della stazione spaziale

Polish

System zdalnie sterowanego manipulatora stacji kosmicznej

Turkish

Uzay İstasyonu Uzaktan Manipülatör Sistemi

German

Fernmanipulatorsystem der Raumstation

Links to Videos/articles:

https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2020/04/Canadarm2_robotic_arm

https://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/iss/canadarm2/about.asp

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/remote-manipulator-system-canadarm2/


Space tether

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:11)
Source: https://www.colorado.edu/faculty/kantha/sites/default/files/attached-files/sandoval_space_tethers.pdf proposed catch and release cycle of a spinning space tether

Source: https://www.colorado.edu/faculty/kantha/sites/default/files/attached-files/sandoval_space_tethers.pdf proposed catch and release cycle of a spinning space tether

Short Definition:

Space tethers are long cables attached to a counterweight. It has many applications in space such as propulsion and momentum exchange etc. This idea could help lowering the amount of money needed to transport payload into low earth orbit by hooking onto specialized spacecrafts in the future and either increasing the speed for space travel or decrease it to prepare for landing.

Detailed Definition:

Despite recent achievements in making spacecrafts fully reusable, space travel and space infrastructure continues to be quite expensive and only reserved for a few institutions and companies. The aim is to commercialize space, but to achieve that goal we still need to vastly decrease the amount of money to get payload into low earth orbit. Skyhooks, a special type of space tethers, could help lowering the cost of transportation into space. The idea is to attach cable hundreds or thousands of kilometres to a counterweight and the weight spins in a circle. The tether will be lowered to be 80-150 kilometres above the earth, where it can hook onto spacecrafts and let them go at the best point to maximize speed adjustment. This idea could make reusable rockets much lighter and cheaper by lowering the amount of rocket fuel needed.

This idea acts as a “orbital battery”, where decreasing the spacecrafts speed will increase the amount of energy in the tether and increasing the spacecrafts speed will decrease the amount of energy in the tether.

Etymology:

Space from Latinspatium

Tether from proto-Germanic teudrą(“rope;cord;shaft”)

Sample Sentence(s):

Space tethers could revolutionize the space industry by lowering the money needed to get payload into low earth orbit.


French:
attache spatiale
German:
Raumseil
Polish:
uwięź kosmiczna
Swedish:
Rymdboj


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://science.nasa.gov/tether-space






Space Weathering

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:16)
Source: https://planetfacts.org/space-weathering/

Source: https://planetfacts.org/space-weathering/


Short Definition:

Space weathering is a general term used for different surface processes which happen to objects and celestial bodies in the harsh environment of outer space.


Detailed Definition:

Bodies in the outer space, which do not have atmospheres, are exposed to a number of devastating weathering processes, such as collisions of galactic or solar cosmic rays, the irradiation, implantation and spluttering from solar wind particles; the bombardment by different sizes of meteorites and micrometeorites. These phenomena are encompassed in the blanket term space weathering. The toll that space weathering takes on both the physical and optical properties of the surfaces of many celestial bodies is an important issue, as remotely sensed data needs to be processed appropriately.


Etymology:

"space" - Old French espace, Latin spatium - room, area, distance, stretch of time

"weather" - Old English weder, Old Saxon wedar, Old Norse veðr, German wetar - wind, weather

"we-" - Proto-Germanic wedra - to blow


Sample Sentence(s):

"Space weathering has to be accounted for during the design of space equipment."


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Altération de l'espace

German: Weltraumverwitterung

Polish: Wietrzenie kosmiczne

Swedish: Rymdvittring


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://spaceweather.com

https://sservi.nasa.gov/articles/space-weathering-on-airless-bodies/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdzZdFZrGHA


Spacecraft

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:18)
Source: SpaceX (2016, September 25). SpaceX's proposed Interplanetary Spaceship, at Saturn.. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51812109

Source: SpaceX (2016, September 25). SpaceX's proposed Interplanetary Spaceship, at Saturn.. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=51812109

Definition:

Vehicle, machine or other apparatus designed to fly or orbit outside the Earth’s atmosphere, i.e. above the Kármán line of 100 km.

Etymology:

Closed compound noun, consisting of ‘space’ and ‘craft’

Translations:

  • English: spacecraft (neutr.) – [ˈspeɪskɹɑːft]
  • French: véhicule spatial (fem.) – [ve.i.kyl spa.sjal]
  • German: Raumfahrzeug (neutr.) – [ˈʁaʊ̯mfaːɐ̯ˌt͡sɔɪ̯k]
  • Polish: statek kosmiczny (masc.) – [ˈstatɛk kɔsˈmit͡ʂ.nɨ]
  • Portuguese: espaçonave (fem.) – [es.ˌpa.so.ˈna.ve]
  • Russian: космический аппарат (masc.) – [kɐsˈmʲit͡ɕɪskʲɪj ɐpɐˈrat]
  • Swedish:

Note: the Russian translation has a slightly different meaning as it includes devices operating in atmospheres and on surfaces of other celestial bodies.

Spacecraft Propulsion

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)



Short Definition:

Spacecraft Propulsion is a method utilised to accelerate a spacecraft and artificial satellites. Different methods exist for this purpose, with each method having its advantages and drawbacks. Most spacecrafts nowadays are propelled by what is called a rocket engine, which propels the space probe by heating the reaction mass and allowing it to eject out from the rear of the vehicle.


Detailed Definition:

A spacecraft propulsion system has the purpose of changing the velocity (acceleration) of a spacecraft and artificial satellites. It is utilised to both leave earth and for orbit insertion. 

To launch a spacecraft from earth, the propulsion method must overcome a higher gravitational pull to provide a positive net acceleration. The difficulty of achieving this change is directly proportional to the size of the vehicle, which is why spacecraft performance is generally discussed in amount of change in momentum per unit of propellant consumed, known as “specific impulse”. The higher the specific impulse, the better the efficiency. 

Once launched, satellites and spacecrafts may need to be moved between orbits, thus requiring propulsion. When a satellite has exhausted its ability to adjust its orbit, its useful life is over. The methods areas are divided into four groups: (1.) chemical propulsion (reaction and rocket engines), (2.) electric propulsion (ion, electrothermal and electromagnetic thrusters), (3.) advanced propulsion technologies and (4) supporting technologies. 


Etymology:

  • Spacecraft: From Latin spatium/ "room” + from Nentish creft/ "power, physical strength"
  • Propulsion: From Latin Pro (pro)/ “before” or “forward” + pellere (pulsion)/”to drive”


Sample sentence(s):

  • Light travels approximately thirty thousand times faster than any current spacecraft propulsion technology.
  • Nuclear pulse propulsion is a form of spacecraft propulsion that would use nuclear explosives to provide impulse to a spacecraft. 


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

  • French: Propulsion spatiale
  • German: Antriebsmethoden für die Raumfahrt
  • Polish: napęd statku kosmicznego
  • Swedish: framdrivning av rymdfarkoster
  • Spanish: Propulsión espacial


Links to Videos/Articles:


Space Propulsion: a Survey Study About Current and Future Technologies. DOI: 10.5028/jatm.v10.829

Spaceship

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 1 sierpnia 2022, 13:16)

cf. Spacecraft

Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM)

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:20)
Source:

Source:

Short Definition: 

A Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), also called 'Dextre', is a system that is part of the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). This robotic system is designed to assist astronauts in spaces where human reach and endurance are limited.

Detailed Definition: 

It is a multi-talented robot added to Canadarm2 on March 16, 2008, by Nasa astronauts Mike Foreman and Richard Linnehan. Designed to withstand the harsh conditions of space, this robot supports astronauts for small tasks around the ISS. These tasks include installing and maintaining the various parts of the ISS's exterior, maintaining the Station's electrical system, and pre-testing new equipment to be added. This robot, which has two hands as sensitive as human hands, has a retractable motorized wrench, camera, light, and connection module in both hands.

Sample Sentence(s):'

'This multi-talented robot can ride on the end of Canadarm2 to move from worksite to worksite, or be ferried on the Mobile Base System.'' 

''Dextre is the most sophisticated space robot ever built.''

Translations:

French: Manipulateur agile à usage spécial

German: Geschickter Manipulator für besondere Zwecke

Italian: Manipolatore abile per scopi speciali

Polish: Zręczny manipulator do zadań specjalnych (SPDM)

Turkish: Özel Amaçlı Hünerli Manipülatör

Links to Videos/Articles: 

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/elements/special-purpose-dextrous-manipulator/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_Servicing_System

https://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/iss/dextre/about.asp

https://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/iss/dextre/

https://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/iss/dextre/data-sheet.asp

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nNcRDBK8zxY&ab_channel=CanadianSpaceAgency


Star

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:21)
Source: Kutsaev, R. (no data). Stars Galaxy Free Stock Image. stocksnap. https://stocksnap.io/photo/stars-galaxy-IJ5DPL13HR

Source: Kutsaev, R. (no data). Stars Galaxy Free Stock Image. stocksnap. https://stocksnap.io/photo/stars-galaxy-IJ5DPL13HR

Definition:

1) A natural luminous body that is visible in the night sky and can be used for navigation.

2) A large celestial body producing light and energy by means of nuclear reactions inside of it.


Etymology

Greek “αστέρι”, Latin “stella”


Translations:

  • English: star    [stɑ: (r)]
  • French: étoile (f)    [et'wal]
  • German:
  • Polish: gwiazda
  • Russianзвезда (f)    [zvʲɪˈzda]
  • Swedish:


Stellar wind

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:22)

Media
Media ESO/Callingham et al.

Media ESO/Callingham et al.


Definitions

Short Definition
Stellar wind is a stream of particles released from the outermost levels of the atmosphere of a star. The effect occurs due to the outward pressure being strong enough to overwhelm the gravitational force.

Detailed Definition
Stellar winds are composed of atoms, ions, and subatomic particles that are ejected by stellar magnetic fields or radiation pressure of a star’s inner nuclear reactions. Stellar winds of lower mass stars are thought to be the result of their magnetic field activity. Winds generated in this process cause subtle depletion of star’s mass over the stable lifetime, up until its transformation into a red giant. Red giants emit slow (10km/s) and voluminous (M > 10-3 solar masses per year) stellar winds driven by the outward radiation pressure. On the contrary, stars of greater mass tend to jettison up to a half of their initial mass over lifetime, substantially affecting their further evolution.


Etymology

Stellar: from Latin stella"star"
Wind: of Germanic origin, from Proto-Indo-European h₂wéh₁n̥tos (“wind”)

Sample Sentences

Bright bow shocks form around stars when their stellar winds interact with the
interstellar medium.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
le vent stellaire

German
der Sternwind

Italian
il vento stellare

Polish
wiatr gwiazdowy

Swedish
stjärnvind

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages

Russian
звездный ветер

Ukrainian
зоряний вiтер


Links to Videos/Articles:

Stellar Wind. ESA/Hubble. Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://esahubble.org/wordbank/stellar-wind/

Holzer, T. E., & Axford, W. I. (1970). The theory of stellar winds and related flows. Annual review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 8(1), 31-60. Retrieved [ 06.17.2023 ], from https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1982ApJ...259..282A/0000282.000.html

Supernova

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:23)

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of a supernova. Midjourney. midjourney

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of a supernova. Midjourney. midjourney

Definition:

Brief, bright illumination of a supermassive star at the end of its lifetime by an explosion in which the original star itself is destroyed.

As it dies, a supermassive star goes through various stages of fusing different elements, forming a red supergiant. During this process, more and more heavy material is deposited onto the stellar core. Once the core’s mass tips past a certain threshold it collapses under its own gravity (meaning it cannot withstand its own gravitational force). The outer layers are blasted outwards in a supernova, the biggest explosion known to occur in the Universe. 

At its peak, a supernova can be brighter than an entire galaxy. Supernovae reach their peak luminosity in a matter of days, so their appearance and early decline can be observed in real time.


Etymology:

from Latin super “beyond”, “over and above” and stella nova “new star”


Translations:

English: supernova (neutr.) – [ˌsuːpərˈnoʊvə]
French: supernova (f)– []
German: Supernova (f) – [ˈzuːpɐˌnoːva]
Polish: supernowa () – []
Russian: сверхновая звезда () - [ˌsvʲerxˈnovəjə zvʲɪzˈda]
Swedish: supernova () – []

Supernova Remnant

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:24)


Short Definition
A supernova remnant is a construction formed by the expanding debris left behind after a massive star undergoes a supernova explosion. It consists of a complex structure of shockwaves, gas, and dust, formed from the ejected material of the exploded star.


Detailed Definition
A supernova remnant undergoes a sequence of five distinct stages before reaching its final form.

First, the ejecta expands freely, gradually shedding their mass into the circumstellar or interstellar medium. Subsequently, the remnant begins to gather and compress surrounding gas, forming a prominent shell. In the ensuing phase, the shell undergoes cooling, resulting in the formation of a thinner, more delicate outer layer enveloping the still-hot interior. As the interior continues to cool, the shell expands further under its own momentum. Finally, the remnant merges with the surrounding interstellar medium, culminating in the formation of a fully-fledged supernova remnant.

Notable examples of supernova remnants include the Crab Nebula, the remnants of SN 1572, and Kepler, the remnants of SN 1604, named after Johannes Kepler. G1.9+0.3, discovered in the galactic centre, stands as the most recent known remnant within our galaxy.


Etymology

The word "supernova" originates from Latin, where "super" means "above" or "beyond," and "nova" translates to "new." The word "remnant" comes from the Latin term "remanens," which means "remaining" or "leftover."


Sample Sentence(s)

Supernova remnants are very important to the structure of galaxies.” Mathis, J. S. (Invalid Date). supernova remnant. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/supernova-remnant

 

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Rémanent de supernova

German
Supernovaüberrest

Italian
Resto di supernova

Polish
Pozostałość po supernowej

Swedish
Supernovarest

 

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Lang...

Turkish
Süpernova kalıntısı

Dutch

Supernovarest

Spanish

resto de supernova

Portuguese

Remanescente de supernova

 

Links to Videos/Articles:

Astrum. (2016a, January 29). Supernova Remnants | Hubble Images 4K | Episode 2 [Video]. YouTube.


 
Mathis, J. S. (Invalid Date). supernova remnant. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/supernova-remnant
 
Supernova Remnant. (n.d.). NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_684.html
 
Reynolds, S. P. (2008). Supernova Remnants at High Energy. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 46(1), 89–126. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.astro.46.060407.145237
 


Surface

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:25)
Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of a planets surface. Midjourney. midjourney

Source: Midjourney (2023, May 25). AI illustration of a planets surface. Midjourney. midjourney


Definition:
The exterior of an astronomical body that is in contact with outer space or an atmosphere.


Etymology:

From Latin superficies.


Translations:

  • German: Oberfläche (f) [ˈoːbɐˌflɛçə]
  • French: surface (f) [syʁˈfas]
  • Polish: powierzchnia
  • Swedish:
  • Russian: поверхность (f) [pɐˈvʲerxnəsʲtʲ]
  • Portuguese: superfície (f) [supɨɾˈfisjɨ]

Links to videos/articles:

T

Taikonaute

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 18:59)
Source : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/%E8%88%AA%E5%A4%A9%E5%91%98%E9%99%88%E5%86%AC_Chen_Dong.jpg/800px-%E8%88%AA%E5%A4%A9%E5%91%98%E9%99%88%E5%86%AC_Chen_Dong.jpg

Source : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/%E8%88%AA%E5%A4%A9%E5%91%98%E9%99%88%E5%86%AC_Chen_Dong.jpg/800px-%E8%88%AA%E5%A4%A9%E5%91%98%E9%99%88%E5%86%AC_Chen_Dong.jpg


Short Definition
A taikonaut is a Chinese astronaut who has experience in space exploration and is a member of Chinese space programme. Taikonauts participate in Chinese space missions, contributing to advancements in space exploration and scientific research.

Detailed Definition
China is the 3rd country, after Soviet Union and the United States to send a human into space in 2003. The first Chinese taikonaut, Yang Liwei, was launched into space aboard the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft. 


Etymology
The word "taikonaut" is a combination of the Chinese word "taikong" meaning "space" and the Greek suffix "-naut" meaning "traveller."

The term "taikonaut" is a term that refers to Chinese astronauts who are trained to participate in China's space missions. 

Taikonauts are selected from People's Liberation Army Air Force and undergo intensive physical and psychological training to prepare for the challenges of spaceflight. China plans to select and train more taikonauts for its future missions. 


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: un taïkonaute 

German: der Taikonaut

Italian: taikonauta

Polish: tajkonauta

Swedish: taikonaut

 

Translations of Terms/Concepts into other languages

Japanese

宇宙飛行士 (uchū hikōshi) or taikonaut (タイコノート)

Korean

태종 (taejong)

Russian

тайконавт (taikonavt)

Spanish

Taikonauta

Portuguese

taikonauta

 

Links to Videos/Article : 

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/航天员陈_Chen_Dong.jpg/800px-航天员陈_Chen_Dong.jpg 

Example sentence:  

A dozen of handpicked Chinese astronauts, or taikonauts as they are called, are set to explore new horizons in space in four manned flight missions within two years. In the first of these missions, three taikonauts aboard the Shenzhou-12 spacecraft have already successfully made it to space.

CGTN.  2021. What does it take to be a taikonaut?  Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-06-22/What-does-it-take-to-be-a-taikonaut--11hwXVttCww/index.html

Articles: 

VOA News Year: (n.d.) Title: Why China, African Nations Are Cooperating in Space Source: VOA News. Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://www.voanews.com/a/why-china-african-nations-are-cooperating-in-space/6745595.html

Unknown. Year: 2022. China Launches New Crew to Space Station Source: The Washington Post.  Retrieved May 29, 2023 from https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2022/11/29/china-space-station-crew-launch/

Video

CGNT Chinese Global Television Network. 10. July 2021. Why are Chinese Astronauts called Taikonauts? Retrieved 18. June 2023 from 

. Retrieved  


Tektite

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:00)

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektite#/media/File:Two_tektites.JPG

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektite#/media/File:Two_tektites.JPG

Short definition: 

Tektites are small pieces of natural glass that are typically black, green, brown, or grey in color. They are created when meteorites impact the Earth and cause terrestrial debris to be ejected and melted into a glass-like material.

Detailed Definition:

A tektite is a type of glass that is formed from the impact of a meteorite on the Earth's surface. The extreme heat and pressure of the impact melts and vaporizes the rocks at the impact site, which then cools and solidifies into a glass-like material. Tektites are typically black or green in color and have a smooth, rounded shape. They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. Tektites are found in the areas around meteorite impact craters, and are used by scientists to study the effects of meteorite impacts on the Earth's surface.

Etymology:

tēktós - molten

Sample Sentence(s):

"Sir Thomas Mitchell found a tektite and gave it to Charles Darwin."

"Some human built objects, such as black buttons, can be mistaken for tektites."

Translations:

French:

Tectite

German:

Tektit

Polish:

Tektyt

Swedish:

Tektit

Links to videos/articles:

https://australian.museum/learn/minerals/shaping-earth/tektites/ 

https://www.britannica.com/science/tektite



Telecommunication

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:07)
Image Source: Kratochvil, P. (n.d.). Telecommunication antennas free stock photo - public domain pictures. Public Domain Pictures. Retrieved April 25, 2023, from https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=501498&picture=telecommunication-antennas

Image Source: Kratochvil, P. (n.d.). Telecommunication antennas free stock photo - public domain pictures. Public Domain Pictures. Retrieved April 25, 2023, from https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=501498&picture=telecommunication-antennas


Short Definition:

Telecommunication is a method of transmitting various data and information over long distances. It is a faster alternative to other methods, which might be more limited in speed and complexity limitations.

Detailed Definition:

Telecommunication is a broad spectrum of means of exchanging certain data types like audio or video over long distances using wide range technologies such as radio, electromagnetic systems and optical or wired connections. Telecommunication technologies are based on a simple system of transmitters and receiver located in various locations to ensure global reach of the network. Telecommunications have been popularised through rise of the internet which is based on the concept of network between telecommunication stations. Telecommunication networks might also be connected in a smaller scale on a more localised areas like Telephone networks (country-wide), academic wide area networks (WANs) or police dispatch networks (city-wide). Telecommunication technologies were changing with the flow of inventions. From wired connections to wireless.


Etymology:

Telecommunication is a compound of Greek and Latin. 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒 meaning distant, faraway. 𝑐𝜊𝑚𝑚𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑒 meaning "to share"


Translations:

French - Télécommunication

German - Telekommunikation

Italian - Telecomunicazione

Polish - Telekomunikacja

Swedish - Telekommunikation


Sample Sentences:
1. Telecommunication is essential for our everyday lives, from radio to phone calls.

2. Without telecommunication, our world wouldn't be so interconnected.

Telescope

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:11)

Image/Video/Audio:

Image/Video/Audio: Image/Video/Audio Source: http://catalog.archives.gov/OpaAPI/media/23486741/content/stillpix/255-sts/STS125/STS125_ESC_JPG/255-STS-s125e011848.jpg

Image/Video/Audio: Image/Video/Audio Source: http://catalog.archives.gov/OpaAPI/media/23486741/content/stillpix/255-sts/STS125/STS125_ESC_JPG/255-STS-s125e011848.jpg

Short Definition:

A telescope is a device used by astronomers to observe distant planets and stars. It gathers light from the night sky by using pieces of curved mirrors. What we see while using it, is a focus of this light. 


Detailed Definition:

There are many sizes and purposes of the telescope. The small, portable ones are quite cheap, available, and can be used by everyone, starting from a kid to a grown up, however they aren’t very powerful, as you can see with them only some parts of our Solar System. Next group is the one with these huge telescopes, usually used by some companies associated with space. They take beautiful and detailed photos of the surrounding us stars and help in mathematical calculations of scientists that discover new solar systems and galaxies. The last group are space telescopes, the most expensive ones. They not only need to be built with special materials, able to survive in harsh conditions but also have to be taken to space, where they take amazing images of the things we can’t really see from Earth. One of the most famous telescopes, the Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 and since then it takes spectacular photos, like the one of the hearth of Eagle Nebula, so called Pillars of Creation.



Etymology:

from Italian telescopio or modern Latin telescopium, from tele- ‘at a distance’ + -scopium


Sample Sentence(s):

We got our friend telescope for a birthday present.

One of the most expensive telescopes, the James Webb Telescope, launched nearly one year ago.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages [Multiple fields for entering the translation of the term in each partner language, additional languages can potentially be added, e.g. Russian, Chinese, Portuguese]

French: 

télescope


German:

Teleskop


Polish:

teleskop


Swedish:

teleskop


Links to Videos/Articles:


Terrestrial Planets

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:14)


Short Definition
Terrestrial planets are rocky planets with solid surfaces, composed mainly of silicate rocks and metals. They are considered potentially habitable due to their location within the habitable zone of their star, this means that they are located at a distance from their star where the temperature is neither too hot nor too cold for liquid water to exist.


Detailed Definition

Terrestrial planets include Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury and typically have thin or no atmospheres, distinguishing them from gas giants. With relatively high densities compared to gas giants, terrestrial planets tend to exhibit a wide range of geological features, such as mountains, valleys, and impact craters.
Additionally, their relatively high densities contribute to their stronger gravitational pull, which affects not only their overall structure but also the dynamics of their planetary systems. It is likely that there were more terrestrial planets during the formation of our solar system, but they either merged with each other or were destroyed. Their unique characteristics and potential for habitability make terrestrial planets a subject of ongoing scientific study and appealing for potential colonization by humans in the future.


Etymology

The term "terrestrial planets" originates from the Latin word "terra," which means "earth" or "land." The word "terrestrial" itself is derived from the Latin adjective "terraeus," meaning "of the earth."

The word "planet" has its roots in ancient Greek. It comes from the Greek term "planētēs," which means "wanderer" or "wandering star."

Sample Sentence(s)

"It's unclear what the dividing line is between a rocky planet and a terrestrial planet."


Dutfield, S., & Gammon, K. (2022). Terrestrial planets: Definition & facts about the inner planets and beyond. Space.com. https://www.space.com/17028-terrestrial-planets.html

 

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Planète tellurique

German
Terrestrische Planeten or Erdähnlicher Himmelskörper

Italian
Pianeta terrestre

Polish
Planety skaliste, planety typu ziemskiego

Swedish
Stenplanet

 

Additional Translations

Spanish

Planeta terrestre

Turkish

Karasal gezegen

Dutch

Aardse planeten

 

Links to Videos/Articles

Dutfield, S., & Gammon, K. (2022). Terrestrial planets: Definition & facts about the inner planets and beyond. Space.com. https://www.space.com/17028-terrestrial-planets.html

Morbidelli, A., Lunine, J. I., O’Brien, D. P., Raymond, S. N., & Walsh, K. J. (2012). Building Terrestrial Planets. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 40(1), 251–275. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105319

Terrestrial | Planet Types – Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond our Solar System. (n.d.). Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond Our Solar System. https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/what-is-an-exoplanet/planet-types/terrestrial/

Cornerstone Television Network. (2015, October 8). Origins: The Terrestrial Planets [Video]. YouTube.


MooMooMath and Science. (2019, August 22). Terrestrial Planets in Order [Video]. YouTube.


The Kuiper belt

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:19)
Image Source: https://theplanets.org/kuiper-belt/

Image Source: https://theplanets.org/kuiper-belt/

Short Definition:
The Kuiper belt (called Edgeworth-Kuiper belt) is a region in space located in the outer Solar System placed between 30 to 50-55 AU (astronomical units) from the Sun. It is a doughnut-shaped ring composed of gas, dust or asteroids.

Detailed Definition:
The first hypotheses about the Kuiper belt appeared in 1930, but it took over 50 years to confirm that hypotheses. Since then scientists discovered over 100000 KBOs (Kuiper belt object) with the diameter larger than 100 km. With that distance from the Sun, objects are mostly composed of leftovers from the solar system's early history which means icy bodies (frozen chemical elements and compounds). The largest KBOs are: Pluto (composed in 98 percent from nitrogen ice) and Eris (mostly built from methane). As the Kuiper Belt is icy-cold place it is thought to be the source of the comets in the solar system. The fascinating thing is that not only planets and dwarf planets might have moons but also lots on Kuiper Belt objects have ones.

Etymology:

Kuiper – Dutch – Kuiper - cooper – from the name of the scientist Gerard Kuiper
Belt – Latin - balteus - girdle

Sample Sentence(s):
“The amount of material in the Kuiper Belt today might be just a small fraction of what was originally there.”

Translations:

French:
Ceinture de Kuiper

German:
Kuipergürtel

Polish:
Pas Kuipera

Swedish:
Kuiperbälte

Spanish
Cinturón de Kuiper

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://theplanets.org/kuiper-belt/
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/news/792/10-things-to-know-about-the-kuiper-belt/       
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumstellar_disc
https://www.britannica.com/place/Kuiper-belt
https://spacecenter.org/what-is-the-kuiper-belt/
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/solar-system/kuiper-belt/overview/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pluto#Geology
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eris_(dwarf_planet)



The Solar System

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


Image Source:

Short Definition:
Solar system is the planetary system consisting of the Sun and other celestial objects which are gravitationally bounded with the Sun, located in an outer spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy.

Detailed Definition:
The Solar system formed 4.6 billion years ago from the solar nebula. The mass of the Solar system is unevenly distributed. The Sun weights 99,86 % of the all masses in the system. The rest of it falls on the planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids etc. The Solar System is divided into 2 parts: the Inner Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) – terrestrial planets composed of rock and metal and Outer Solar System (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) – giant planets. The first two are gas giants (composed of hydrogen and helium), and the next two are ice giants (composed of water, ammonia, and methane). Between the inner and outer system is an asteroid belt with Ceres (dwarf planet). It is assumed that the asteroid belt has been created in a collision of a planet and celestial object. Behind the Neptune there is a Kuiper belt – similar to asteroid belt with Pluto, Charon and Eris (dwarf planets).

Etymology:
solar – Latin – solis - Sun
system – Greek – systema - set of entities that interact in an orderly and organized fashion

Sample Sentence(s):
The solar wind emanating from the Sun blasts through the Solar System, interacting with the planets, and pushing material out into interstellar space.

Translations of Terms:
French:

Système solaire

German:
Sonnensystem

Polish:
Układ Słoneczny

Swedish:

Solsystem

Spanish:

El sistema solar

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.universetoday.com/15822/what-is-the-solar-system/
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/solar-system/our-solar-system/overview/
https://www.britannica.com/science/solar-nebula
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725996/


Time Dilation

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:22)

Media:

Media: File:Nonsymmetric velocity time dilation.gif - Wikimedia Commons . (2006, January 28). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nonsymmetric_velocity_time_dilation.gif

Media: File:Nonsymmetric velocity time dilation.gif - Wikimedia Commons . (2006, January 28). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nonsymmetric_velocity_time_dilation.gif

Short Definition:

Time Dilation is a phenomenon observable through the change of measuring of elapsed time by two clocks. The change usually occurs due to the difference in velocity or gravitational potential. The faster you move relative to some object, the slower time seems to flow.

Detailed Definition:

Time Dilation is an occurrence which takes place due to the difference in velocity or gravitational potential of a given object. It occurs when one of the objects has higher velocity than the other (commonly called a reference frame). The reference frame is a coordinate system defined by certain characteristic points, this frame is stable while the other object travels with a certain velocity, different from the frame. What can be then observed is that the travelling object experiences time slower, than the reference frame (observer). This phenomenon is strictly connected to Einstein's theory of relativity, as the time passes differently, relative to the state (either gravitational or velocity) of the object. Time dilation has been observed and calculated on the International Space Station. The differences in time perception are virtually insignificant (in milliseconds) at small distances, but might increase to even years in difference.


Etymology:

Time, from Old English "tima" defined as limited space of time. Dilation from Late Latin "dilatationem" meaning widening of something.


Sample Sentence(s)

1. The astronauts on the ISS experienced time dilation of around 20 milliseconds, compared to earth.

2. The time on ISS is lagging by about 0.01 seconds for every 12 months on earth, due to time dilation.


Translation:

French - dilatation du temps

German- Zeitdilatation

Italian - dilatazione del tempo

Polish - dylatacja czasu

Swedish - Tidsdilatation


Twilight

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: piątek, 28 kwietnia 2023, 18:09)


Image/Video/Audio Source:

Short definition:
Twilight is the phase (period) just after sunset, when astronomical night has not yet occurred.

Detailed Definition:
Twilight is the period after sunset when the Earth is illuminated by sunlight diffused in the atmosphere. The following twilight phases are distinguished: civil twilight, nautical twilight and astronomical twilight. The only difference between twilight phases is where the Sun is located, which makes the sky gets darker. When the Sun is up to 6°  below the horizon, it is considered a civil twilight. When the Sun is between 6° and 12° below the horizon, it is said to be a nautical twilight. An astronomical twilight is when the Sun is located from 12° to 18° below the horizon. When Sun position is over 18° below the horizon line, it is considered as night.

Etymology:

late Middle English: from Old English twi- ‘two’ (used in an obscure sense in this compound)
from Latin lūx (“light”), from Proto-Indo-European *lewk- (“white; light; bright”)

Sample Sentence(s):
Twilight heralds the beginning of the night.

Translations:
French:

Le crépuscule

German:
die Dämmerung

Polish:
Zmierzch

Swedish:
Skymning

Spanish:

El crepúsculo

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.weather.gov/lmk/twilight-types
https://www.britannica.com/dictionary/twilight
https://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/different-types-twilight.html
https://youtu.be/FX1slLeJRPg


Twins Study

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 14:41)


Definition:

A study aiming to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the human organism. The study was organized by NASA with the support of 8 universities across the USA. It was conducted in 2015-2016 and involved two identical twin brothers: Scott and Mark Kelly.

Scott Kelly served on a year-long mission aboard the International Space Station, while his brother Mark Kelly, a former NASA employee, remained on Earth. The twins study included an array of biochemical, neurological and other types of medical tests conducted before, during and after the spaceflight, i.e. over the span of 27 months. The results confirmed the robustness and resilience of human health, since 91,3% of Scott Kelly’s medical parameters returned to baseline six months after the spaceflight. The remaining changes were to be used for development of personalized measures to predict and overcome possible adverse consequences of spaceflight.

Translations:

French: 

German:
 
Polish: Eksperyment z bliżniakami

Swedish:




Article:

https://www.science.org/doi/pdf/10.1126/science.aau8650


Other sources:

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/nasa-s-twins-study-results-published-in-science

https://www.nasa.gov/twins-study/about

 


U

Umbra

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 14:43)


Source:


Short definition: 

The umbra is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where light is completely blocked by an object. In the context of astronomy, the umbra is often observed during a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow is cast on the Earth.

Detailed Definition:

The Umbra is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow. It is the area where light is completely blocked by an object, such as a planet or moon. When a celestial body, passes between a star and another celestial body, it can cast a shadow on that body. The umbra is the part of the shadow that is directly behind the blocking body. The lighter part of the shadow - penumbra, is the area where only part of the light is blocked. The umbra and penumbra can be observed during a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow is cast on the Earth.

Etymology:

Umbra (Latin) - shadow

Sample Sentence(s):

"Terms "umbra" and "penumbra" are not limited to celestial bodies, they occur in shadows of everyday objects."

"During solar eclipse, when an observer stands in umbra, dusk seems to set from all directions on the horizon at once."

Translations:

German:

Umbra

Polish:

Cień całkowity

Links to videos/articles:

https://www.universetoday.com/155274/astronomy-jargon-101-umbra/


Universe

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:27)

Source:Cajina, I. (2017, September 17). Milky Way from Max Patch. unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/asuyh-_ZX54

Definition

The totality of all existing matter, energy, space and time.

The universe is approximately 13,8 years old and has emerged as a result of the Big Bang, in which it emerged from a single point and continues to expand.


Translation
  • French: l’Univers [y.ni.vɛʁ]
  • German: das Universum [uniˈvɛʁzʊm]
  • Polish: Wszechświat
  • Russian: Вселенная[fsʲɪˈlʲenːəɪ̯ə]
  • Swedish: Universum

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/what-is-an-exoplanet/what-is-the-universe/


Tagi:
V

Vacuum

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:28)

Image:

Image: Source: https://www.metabunk.org/attachments/metabunk-2018-10-31-08-37-23-jpg.34929/

Image: Source: https://www.metabunk.org/attachments/metabunk-2018-10-31-08-37-23-jpg.34929/

Short Definition:

A vacuum is a space in which there is no matter such as gas or particles. It is found in space or can be generated by machines.

Detailed Definition:

Space that does not contain any gas inside its boundaries. However, it is also required that there is not any matter in general in either state such as gas, liquid, or solid, among other complex definition states. Even though the vacuum is found naturally in space, it is used on earth for different machines such as vacuum pumps, and vacuum chambers, among others.

Etymology:

Vacum comes from the latin Vacuus, which means empty.

Sample Sentence(s):

Life cannot be found or developed in the vacuum of space.

The dead body astronaut rambled in the vacuum of space.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: vide

German: Vakuum

Polish: próżnia

Swedish: svenska

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/365382138_A_Review_of_Research_on_the_Vacuum_Plume

DOI: 10.3390/aerospace9110706

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E43-CfukEgs&ab_channel=BBC

Valentina Tereshkova

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: niedziela, 1 października 2023, 14:51)


Illustration: http://www.astronaut.ru/as_rusia/lady62/foto/tereshkova02.jpg


Definition:

The first female cosmonaut, the 10th person in the world to be sent into space. Valentina Tereshkova flew into space alone aboard Vostok-6 on June 16, 1963. The duration of the flight amounted to 2 days, 22 hours and 50 minutes, during which the spacecraft orbited the Earth 48 times.

Valentina Tereshkova was born in 1937 in the village of Bolshoye Maslennikovo in Yaroslavl Oblast, USSR. In 1960, she graduated from Yaroslavl Light Industry Training School as a cotton spinning technician, and in 1969 received a qualification from Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy as a pilot, cosmonaut and engineer. She enjoyed parachuting, which later turned out to be one of the criteria for cosmonaut selection. Following the spaceflight, she worked as a cosmonaut instructor until reaching mandatory retirement age in 1997. Later she continued working as a politician, which she had already been doing since 1966. Her daughter Elena is said to be the first child in the world whose parents are both cosmonauts.


Translation:
  • French:
  • German:
  • Polish: Walentyna Tierieszkowa
  • Russian: Валентина Терешкова
  • Swedish:

Links to Videos/Articles:

http://www.astronaut.ru/crossroad/010.htm

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Терешкова,_Валентина_Владимировна

 


Venus

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:39)
Source: Hecht, M. (2012, June 5). Venus Transit. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/76858203@N04/23105554654

Source: Hecht, M. (2012, June 5). Venus Transit. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/76858203@N04/23105554654


Definition:

Venus is the planet with the second closest orbit to the Sun.

Venus is our inner neighbor in space in the Solar System. It is a celestial body located just 40 million kilometers far from the Earth. Venus resembles the earth in the main parameters: size, mass, density and internal structure almost match.


Etymology:

In Roman mythology (= ancient stories), the goddess (= female god) of beauty and love.


Translations:
  • French: Vénus (fem.) [ve.nys]
  • German: Venus (fem.) [ˈveːnʊs]
  • Polish: Wenus [ˈvɛ.nus]
  • Portuguese: Vênus (fem.) [ˈvẽ.nus]
  • Russian: Венера [vɛˈnɛrə]
  • Swedish: Venus

Volcano

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:45)

Image:

Image: Source: https://www.dw.com/en/volcanic-eruptions-can-cool-the-planet/a-40727123

Image: Source: https://www.dw.com/en/volcanic-eruptions-can-cool-the-planet/a-40727123

Short Definition:

A volcano is a hill or mountain with a hole where lava, rocks, or gas may be seen erupting from a planet or moon's interior.

Detailed Definition:

A crack in the earth's crust through which substances such as lava, steam, ashes, etc. are released continually or sporadically. Volcanoes are known to exist on the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the moon Io of Jupiter. Only two of these bodies currently have active volcanoes: Earth and Io. However, Venus or Europa, the moon of Jupiter, may have volcanoes erupting.

Etymology:

Volcano comes from the Latin Vulcanus, which is the name of the fire god.

Sample Sentence(s):

The volcano's lava was pouring down the mountainside.

On the seabed of Jupiter's moon Europa, there has been volcanic activity.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: volcan

German: Vulkan

Polish: wulkan

Swedish: vulkan

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/topic/volcanoes

https://chandra.harvard.edu/press/10_releases/press_081810.html


W

White Dwarf

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 2 października 2023, 19:46)

Image/Video/Audio:

Image/Video/Audio: Picture: A white dwarf Image/Video/Audio  Source: File:White  dwarf.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (2011, April 5).  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_dwarf.jpg

Image/Video/Audio: Picture: A white dwarf Image/Video/Audio Source: File:White dwarf.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (2011, April 5). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_dwarf.jpg

Short Definition:

White dwarfs, or cold stars, is a term often used to describe stars in the final stages of their evolution. These stars, which lose their energy sources and cannot perform fusion reactions, are the stars that tend to squeeze into themselves due to the gravitational law. This phenomenon was firstly discovered by the British astronomer 'William Herschel' in 1783.

Detailed Definition:

As one of the densest stellar remnants in space, white dwarfs are stars that have run out of most of their nuclear fuel and tend to collapse inwards. These stars, which are relatively Earth-sized and composed entirely of carbon and oxygen mass, are less than 1.4 solar masses when their cores are stable, but they tend to suffer constant heat and radiation loss because they do not undergo any fusion process. According to NASA's calculations, the core temperatures of white dwarfs can reach up to 100,000 Kelvin. Apart from the carbon and oxygen mass that make up their core, their envelope are surrounded by thin helium and in some cases hydrogen atoms.

Etymology:

White - from Proto-Indo-European (ḱweydós)

Dwarf - from Proto-Germanic (dwergaz)

(white - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/white)

(dwarf - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dwarf)

Sample Sentence(s):

‘’White dwarfs evolve from stars with an initial mass of up to three or four solar masses or even possibly higher.’’

(The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). White dwarf star | Definition, Size, Mass, Life Cycles, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/white-dwarf-star)

‘’White dwarfs reach this incredible density because they are collapsed so tightly that their electrons are smashed together, forming what is called "degenerate matter.’’

(Dobrijevic, D., & Tillman, N. T. (2022, March 4). White dwarfs: Facts about the dense stellar remnants. Space.com. https://www.space.com/23756-white-dwarf-stars.html)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Naine blanche

German:

Weißer Zwerg

Polish:

Biały karzeł

Swedish:

Vit dvärg

Turkish:

Beyaz Cüce

Links to Videos/Articles:

Dobrijevic, D., & Tillman, N. T. (2022, March 4). White dwarfs: Facts about the dense stellar remnants. Space.com. https://www.space.com/23756-white-dwarf-stars.html

Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell. (2017, May 4). The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsN1LglrX9s

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). White dwarf star | Definition, Size, Mass, Life Cycles, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/white-dwarf-star

White Dwarfs. (2021, May 4). Science. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/white-dwarfs


Y

Yuri Gagarin

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 28 sierpnia 2023, 12:34)
Wikipedia Year: (n.d.) Yuri Gagarin - 1961-04-12. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/vi/7/7f/Yurigagarin-1961-04-12.jpg

Wikipedia Year: (n.d.) Yuri Gagarin - 1961-04-12. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/vi/7/7f/Yurigagarin-1961-04-12.jpg

 

Definitions


Short Definition

Yuri Gagarin was a Soviet cosmonaut and the first human to travel into space. On April 12, 1961, aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft, Gagarin completed a single orbit around the Earth, marking a significant milestone in human space exploration. His flight lasted 108 minutes and made him an international symbol of space exploration and achievement.

Detailed Definition
Yuri Gagarin (1934 - 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut and the first human to journey into space. In 1961, he became the first human to travel into space aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft. His flight lasted just under two hours, during which he orbited the Earth once. Gagarin's historic achievement made him an international celebrity and a symbol of Soviet scientific and technological prowess. 


Etymology

The surname "Gagarin" is derived from the Russian word "gagary," which means "cuckoo."


Sample Sentence(s)

1. Gagarin's flight came at a time when the United States and the Soviet Union were competing for technological supremacy in space. 

David, L. Year: 2012 First Man in Space: Yuri Gagarin's Historic Vostok 1 Flight. Space.com Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://www.space.com/16159-first-man-in-space.html

2. The Gagarin crater on the Moon is named after Yuri Gagarin, in recognition of his achievement as the first human to journey into space.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Yuri Gagarin

German
Yuri Gagarin

Italian
Jurij Gagarin

Polish
Jurij Gagarin

Swedish
Jurij Gagarin

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages

Russian: Юрий Гагарин

Links to Videos/Articles:


Britannica Year: (n.d.). Yuri Gagarin. Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Yuri-Gagarin

BBC News. 2021. Yuri Gagarin: The first man in space - BBC News. Retrieved Jun 12. 2024 from https://youtu.be/KANuFlelQ5k.


Z

Zenith

(Ostatnia modyfikacja: poniedziałek, 28 sierpnia 2023, 12:33)

Media
Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003.

Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003.



Definitions

Short Definition
Zenith is a point on the celestial sphere that is directly above the observer. The zenith is diametrically opposite to the nadir.

Detailed Definition
Zenith is determined by the direction of the gravitational force at particular point on Earth. Typically, the term implies astronomical zenith, that is, the point at which the imaginary line drawn from the geometrical centre of the Earth through the observer intersects with the celestial sphere. The angular distance from zenith is called the zenith distance of the celestial body. The zenith and the nadir form two poles of the horizon.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin cenit, from Arabic samt (ar-ra's)“path (over the head)”

Sample Sentences

Glowing with astral turquoise, the comet dashingly passed zenith and started decelerating as it was approaching the horizon.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
le zénith

German
der Zenit

Italian
lo zenit

Polish
zenit

Swedish
zenit

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages


Russian
зенит

Ukrainian
зенiт


Links to Videos/Articles:

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). Zenith | astronomy. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://www.britannica.com/science/zenith-astronomy

Zenith | COSMOS. (n.d.). Retrieved [ 06.20.2023 ], from https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/z/Zenith