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Site: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University
Course: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University (UNIVERSEH)
Glossary: Dictionary of Space Concepts
J

James Webb Space Telescope

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 9:51 PM)

Source:

Short Definition:

The James Webb Space Telescope is a large telescope in space that conducts infrared astronomy. The cutting edge telescope technology aims to shine light on stars or galaxies, that were previously hidden in “plain” sight. Many people think this is the successor to the Hubble telescope, but in reality, it is more of a successor for the Spitzer space telescope, which also is an infrared telescope. The property of light to shift to red makes this a helpful telescope to look at the oldest galaxies.

Detailed Definition:

The James Webb Space Telescope is a visualizing device for away structures or phenomenons that work in the infrared range. The biggest telescope in space had to overcome many difficulties to even be transported to space. The telescope had to be folded to even fit in the rocket, and so they used Origami techniques to transport it safely to its place. JWST is not an all-rounder telescope like Hubble is. JWST aims to discover secrets from almost the beginning of time with the most sophisticated infrared sensors, cameras and lenses that were used till now, but looking at the oldest stars and galaxies is not its only job. JWST will also be used to identify fitting exoplanets by scanning the atmospheres of those planets for the right gas composition.

Etymology:

Latin- spatiumà Old French -espaceà Middle English – space

Modern latintele and modern latin -scopiumà Modern latin – Telescopiumà English telescope

Sample Sentence(s):

Webb will be the largest telescope ever placed in space; 100 times more powerful than Hubble. So big it has to fold origami-style to fit in the rocket and will unfold like a "Transformer" in space (NASA)

 NGC 346, one of the most dynamic star-forming regions in nearby galaxies, is full of mystery. Now, it is less mysterious with new findings from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. (NASA)

French:

télescope spatial james webb

German:

James Webb Weltraumteleskop

Polish:

Kosmiczny Teleskop Jamesa Webba

Swedish:

James Webb rymdteleskop

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://webb.nasa.gov/ 

https://webbtelescope.org/









Jet engine

(Last edited: Friday, 22 September 2023, 6:18 PM)

U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG Photograph of a jet engine in operation, with a long converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

U.S. Air Force. (2010, November). F100 F-15 engine. Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/F100_F-15_engine.JPG Photograph of a jet engine in operation, with a long converging plume of hot gas streaming out from the nozzle

Short Definition:

A jet engine is a reaction engine that produces a jet of heated gas to be discharged from the engine as a reaction mass. The Propelling gas is usually air, especially when the engine is used in the atmosphere on flying vehicles, but can be other gas or liquid.

Detailed Definition:

A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast-moving (often supersonic) jet of hot gas (usually air, if the engine is used in the atmosphere) and to generate thrust. Jet engines are usually internal combustion engines and used everywhere: on planes, boats and rockets.

Etymology:

Jet – from French jet– throw, cast, gush, spurtEngine – from Middle English engyn or Anglo-Norman engine or Old French engin– skill, cleverness, war machine

Sample Sentences:

The jet engine roared as the airplane accelerated down the runway.

Translations

French: Moteur à réaction

German: Turbinen-Strahltriebwerk

Italian: Esoreattore

Polish: Silnik odrzutowy

Swedish: Jetmotor

Russian: Реаĸтивный двигатель

Ukrainian: Реаĸтивний двигун

References:

SKYbrary Aviation Safety. (2019, December). Jet engine. Retrieved from https://www.skybrary.aero/articles/jet-engine

Airbus. (2016, November). Flight operations briefing notes – Supplementary techniques : Handling engine malfunctions. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20161022181226/http://www.airbus.com/fileadmin/media_gallery/files/safety_library_items/AirbusSafetyLib_-FLT_OPS-SUPP_TECH-SEQ07.pdf


Jupiter

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 9:55 PM)

Source: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711

Source: Stewart, P. (2018, June 8). Jupiter. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/106648653@N05/42658035711

Definition

  1. The largest planet in the Solar System (143000 km in diameter), the fifth planet from the Sun.
  2. The third brightest natural celestial body visible in the Earth’s night sky.

Etymology:

The planet is named after Jupiter, the highest ancient Roman deity, the god of sky and thunder.


Translations:
  • English: Jupiter    [ˈdʒuːpɪtər]
  • French: Jupiter    [ʒypitɛʁ]
  • German: Jupiter    [ˈjʊpitɐ]
  • Polish: Jowisz
  • Russian: Юпитер (masc.)    [jʉˈpʲitʲɪr]
  • Swedish: