Saturday, 22 June 2024, 2:04 AM
Site: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University
Course: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University (UNIVERSEH)
Glossary: Dictionary of Space Concepts
E

ExoMars Programme

(Last edited: Wednesday, 30 August 2023, 5:45 PM)


Definition

A programme created in cooperation between ESA and Roscosmos, which is trying to find signs of biological processes on Mars indicating whether life has ever existed on that planet. The programme includes two missions:

  • The Trace Gas Orbiter and the Schiaparelli module (launched in 2016)
  • The Rosalind Franklin rover and a stationary surface science platform Kazachok (put on hold in March 2022 due to impossibility of cooperating with Roscosmos; launch date is not yet known)

The Trace Gas Orbiter’s task is to look for trace atmospheric gases, including methane, which would indicate the presence of biological processes, whereas the Rosalind Franklin rover is supposed to look for evidence of life on the surface and underground.


Etymology:

“Exo” in ExoMars refers to “exobiology”, a branch of sciences investigating life beyond Earth. A rover involved in this mission is named after Rosalind Franklin, who was an English chemist known in particular for her contribution to DNA research. The platform Kazachok is named after a Russian folk dance.


Sources:

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars/What_is_ExoMars


More about the mission:

https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Exploration/ExoMars/ExoMars_Factsheet


Expansion of the universe

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 7:04 PM)
Image/Video/Audio Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe#/media/File:CMB_Timeline300_no_WMAP.jpg

Image/Video/Audio Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe#/media/File:CMB_Timeline300_no_WMAP.jpg

Short Definition:

The expansion of the universe is a phenomenon, which describes the inherent property of the universe, where two galaxies that are gravitationally unbound tend to increase the distance to each other and the rate of expansion is even accelerating. Far away parts of the observable universe will not be observable in the near future, because the velocity of expansion is higher than light speed from an outside perspective.

Detailed Definition:

The expansion of the universe is a phenomenon, which explains an inherent property of the universe to expand. The fact that the universe seems to expand, was first doubted because of the gravitational force and the fact that releases of energy like the big bang should normally lose power and should slow over time, but the opposite was observed. The elusive culprit was found quite fast. Dark matter is to be responsible for this phenomenon, but since we know even less about dark matter than about the expansion of the universe, details of how and why it expands are still unknown. 

This expansion occurs at every location of the universe and only gravitationally bound galaxies will be able to observe each other, because unbound galaxies will escape our observable universe at some point. The expansion can in some way be compared to an elastic rubber band, where the distances also increase when you stretch it, but not literally and not on a human scale. It is more that at a scale so far zoomed out, that the universe looks like a cosmic fluid and at this scale it is apparent that the density is decreasing over time. There are three viable methods to measure this expansion. One is based on redshifts, while another on the cosmic distance ladder. Those measurements gave non-matching results, and so 2018 information from gravitational waves made it possible to determine the rate of expansion even more precisely.

Etymology:

Expansion à from Latin expandere à spread out

Universeà from Old French univers à from Latin universum

Sample Sentence(s):

In a thought experiment of an ascending civilization in a faraway galaxy in the far future, they would only be able to observe their neighbouring galaxies and will think  that this is all there is to the universe and all this due to an expansion of the universe.

 

The rate of expansion of the universe is thought to be accelerating.


French:

Expansion de l'univers

German:

Ausdehnung des Universums

Polish:

Ekspansja Wszechświata

Swedish:

Utvidgning av universum

Links to Videos/Articles:

Expansion of the universe - Wikipedia









F

Falcon 9

(Last edited: Wednesday, 30 August 2023, 5:47 PM)

Source : SpaceX (2016, January 16). Falcon 9 vertical at Vandenberg Air Force Base. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64851825

Source : SpaceX (2016, January 16). Falcon 9 vertical at Vandenberg Air Force Base. wikimedia commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64851825


Definition:

Falcon 9 is the world's first orbital class reusable rocket, created and manufactured by SpaceX. It is a reusable, two-stage rocket capable of transporting both people and payloads into Earth's orbit and beyond. Reusability allows to reuse the most expensive parts of the rocket, which diminishes the cost of space access. The standard parameters of the rocket are:

Height - 70 m / 229.6 ft

Diameter - 3.7 m / 12 ft

Mass - 549,054 kg / 1,207,920 lb

The engine used in production of Falcon 9 is the Merlin, which uses grade kerosene (RP-1) and liquid oxygen as rocket propellants in a gas-generator power cycle. The Merlin engine was originally designed for recovery and reuse.

Falcon 9 has already been used in numerous missions or tests (Crew-1 Mission, Crew-2 Mission, Crew-3 Mission, DART Mission) and is planned to be launched in the next ones (for example Polaris Dawn in the last quarter of 2022). 


Sample Sentence(s):

"This rocket is the Falcon 9 that successfully reached orbit after 9 minutes and 38 seconds on its maiden test flight."
"It was suggested to be launched with a Falcon 9 rocket."


Translations:
  • French: Falcon 9
  •  German: Falcon 9
  •  Polish: Falcon 9 
  •  Swedish: Falcon 9

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.spacex.com/updates/
https://www.sciencefocus.com/science/environmentally-friendly-space-travel/
https://www.spacex.com/vehicles/falcon-9/

Fluid shift in the human body

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 8:08 PM)
Image Source: S, M. (2023, June 01). Illustration of fluid distribution. self. self-made

Image Source: S, M. (2023, June 01). Illustration of fluid distribution. self. self-made

The fluid shift in the body is an adaption to the reduced gravitation force in space. This results in a shift of the body fluids from the lower body to the upper body.

Detailed Definition:

When a human body is placed on the earth surface, it has a hydrostatic (gravitational) blood pressure gradient and every body region has a different arterial pressure.

In the reduced gravity of space, the hydrostatic pressure in the arteries and veins is altered to a homogeneous arterial pressure in all regions (which is the original arterial pressure of the hearth), which results in the shifted fluid distribution through the body.

The human body reduces the volume of the total fluid and after the space resident, the fluid is shifted because of the returned gravity force.

This phenomenon can cause several issues like cardiac arrhytmia, muscular athropy and visual problems (because the globe is flattened, the blood flow is changed slightly and the diamteter of the optical nerve can increase).


Etymology:
fluid - Latin fluidus ("fluid, flowing, moist")
shift - Proto-Germanic skiftan (" to divide, change, seperate")

Sample sentence(s):

A medical effect of a space flight may be a fluid shift.

Nasa is studying the effect of the fluid shift and how it affects changes in vision.

Translation:

French:

déplacement du fluide

German:

Flüssigkeitsverschiebung 

Polish:

Przemieszczenie płynów w ludzkim organizmie

Swedish:

vätskeförskjutning


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.nasa.gov/content/fluid-shifts-study-advances-journey-to-mars

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/citations/20150001888


Frequency

(Last edited: Friday, 28 April 2023, 6:09 PM)


Image Source:



Short Definition:

A frequency (f) is a physical variable which measures how often a event is repeated in a defined period of time.  

The SI-unit is Hertz (hz) or s^-1.  

A common scenario in which the frequency is used, is in a wave, in which it can be calculated by measuring the Period T (the time it takes to complete one cycle) and using the equation: f = 1/T 


Detailed Definition:
Another equation by which the frequency can be calculated, is the following with \( \lambda = \) wavelength and v= phase velocity (if the wave is detected in a vacuum, the following applies: v=c)
\( f = v/ \lambda \).

There exist two special types of frequency, the angular frequency and the spatial frequency, which will be explained in the following:
The angular frequency (ω) describes how fast a vibration / wave is occurring by measuring the overstepped phase angle of the vibration / wave in a defined time period. This frequency can be calculated in the already introduced frequency f by using the following equation:
\( \omega = 2 \pi f = 2 \pi /T \).

The spatial frequency (ξ) measures how often sinusoidal components (components of a sinusoidal wave) of a structure repeat per unit of distance, which can be calculated by using the following equation:
\( \xi = 1/ \lambda = f/v \).

Etymology:
frequency - Latin frequentia (" an assembling in great numbers, a crowding; crowd, multitude, thong")

Sample Sentence(s):
The frequency can be identified by calculating the inverse of the period T.
The frequency is a variable which can characterize a wave.

Translations:
French: Fréquence

German: Frequenz


Polish: Częstotliwość

Swedish: Frekvens


Links to Videos/Articles:
https://www.britannica.com/science/frequency-physics
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WIDhLeryWM
https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-2/Frequency-and-Period-of-a-Wave


G

Galactic disk

(Last edited: Thursday, 31 August 2023, 4:11 PM)


Short Definition:

A galactic disc is a component of disc galaxies. An example are spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. The set-up of Galactic discs are a stellar component (these encompass the majority of the galaxy's stars) as well as a gaseous component (simply largely composed of cold gas and dust).

Detailed Definition:

The stellar disc of our Galaxy is divided into two components because the vertical density profile determined from star counts can be explained by a superposition of two exponentials, but not by a single exponential. (Gilmore & Reid, 1983). Further study found a thick-disc component with high-velocity dispersion, significant enrichment, and ancient age. Many writers believe that the thick disc was a relic of a turbulent period in Galactic history when the thick disc developed from accreted satellites or a thin disc heated the substance at high temperatures by one or more merger events (for a discussion, see Reddy Lambert, and Allende Prieto 2006).

This structure was first observed in external edge-on galaxies and later proposed as a distinct part of the Milky Way in a 1983 article by Gilmore and Reid. It is separate from both the thin disk and the halo. The thick disk is a structural component of approximately two-thirds of all disk galaxies, including the Milky Way. It was initially detected in external edge-on galaxies. Soon later, in the 1983 article by Gilmore and Reid, it was proposed as a galactic structure in the Milky Way, distinct from the thin disk and the halo.

Etymology

The term galaxy was derived from the Greek word galaxas (kklos) (o), which means "milky (circle)," and was called by its appearance in the sky as a milky ring of light.

Sample Sentence(s):

1.     It would take two billion years for the changes caused by a Galactic Battle to be realized.

2.     It glows on the galactic scale.

3.     The galactic disk is the Milky Way's disk component.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

Polish: dysk galaktyczny

French: disque galactique

German: galaktische Scheibe

Italian: disco galattico

Swedish: galaktisk skiva


Galaxy

(Last edited: Friday, 28 April 2023, 6:09 PM)


Image/Video/Audio Source:

Short Definition:
A galaxy is a system composed of a star and an interstellar matter that is held together by the gravity force.

Detailed Definition:
A galaxy is a vast collection of stars, their solar systems, gas, and dust. In the centre of the galaxy a massive black hole is placed. Galaxies have different shapes from one another, with variations deriving from how the systems were created and later evolved. A few galaxies resemble our own in spiral shape. They possess curved arms that give it a pinwheel-like appearance. Others have smooth surfaces and oval forms. Scientists refer to them as elliptical galaxies. There are galaxies that are neither spirals nor ovals, either. They mimic blobs and have amorphous forms. Each of these galaxies emits light that we can see from its stars. In the future some galaxies will collide like NGC 4567 and NGC 4568 (commonly referred to as the Butterfly galaxies) started to do so and some will drift apart that the light from its stars will not reach the Earth.

Etymology:
Old French from medieval Latin galaxia, from Greek galaxias (kuklos) ‘milky (vault)’, from gala, galakt-‘milk’.

Sample Sentence(s):
When the sky is dark, centre of our galaxy is perfectly visible.

Translations:
French:
Une galaxie

German:
die Galaxie

Polish:
Galaktyka

Swedish:
En galax

Spanish:
Una galaxia

Links to Videos/Articles:
https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/galaxy/en/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy
https://www.britannica.com/science/galaxy
https://edition.cnn.com/2022/08/10/world/colliding-galaxies-gemini-north-image-scn/index.html


Galaxy cluster

(Last edited: Thursday, 31 August 2023, 4:12 PM)


Short Definition
Galaxy cluster is astronomical structure that consist of dark matter, hot plasma and galaxies. They are the biggest bound by gravity formations that we know of.


Detailed Definition

Galaxy clusters are the biggest structures bound by gravity. They consist in 85% of dark matter that is connecting the whole structure together. We can detect dark matter only by observing how its gravitation affects objects around it and what influence it has on light passing near it. The amount of gravity produced in clusters by dark matter is a cause for effect called “gravitational lensing”. That effect bends the light magnifying it and making the cluster into a big natural telescope. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to observe some of the smaller, further galaxies.

Most of the visible matter in galaxy clusters is in form of hot plasma called the intracluster medium (ICM). Due to the high gravitational potential energy of material the shock sends gas into really high temperatures that can raise up to 10s of millions grad Celsius. That temperature later causes the emission of X-Rays.

The smallest part of galaxy clusters are galaxies, they are around 2% of a total mass of the structure. Yet the biggest known to us galaxies are formed in clusters.


Etymology

Galaxy (Noun.), originated from Ancient Greek word galaxías, that means “Milky Way”. At first used only to describe Milky Way Galaxy, later on it changed its meaning to more general.

Cluster (Noun.), derived from Proto-Germanic *klas-, *klus-, meaning “to clump, lump together”.

Sample Sentence(s)

Galaxy clusters can consist of thousands of galaxies.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: amas de galaxies

German: Galaxienhaufen

Italian: mmasso di galassie

Polish: gromada galaktyk

Swedish: galaxhop


Links to Videos/Articles:

  1. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (n.d.), Clusters and Group of Galaxies, Retrieved from https://www.mpe.mpg.de/2040034/clusters_and_groups_of_galaxies
  2. Center for Astrophysics Harvard & Smithsonian (n.d.), Galaxy Clusters, Retrieved from https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-clusters
  3. Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), galaxy (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/galaxy#etymonline_v_1225
  4. Online Etymology Dictionary (n.d.), cluster (n.), Retrieved from https://www.etymonline.com/word/cluster#etymonline_v_13860
  5. European Space Agency (2007, Juli), The Bullet Cluster, Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2007/07/The_Bullet_Cluster2#.ZFmq1Dq136A.link  

Galaxy Evolution

(Last edited: Friday, 28 April 2023, 6:09 PM)

Picture: Model of Evolution of Galaxy

Image/Video/Audio Source:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Evolution_in_slow_motion.jpg

Short Definition:

Galaxy evolution or evolution of galaxy is a term that we have used for understanding the formation process and changes of galaxies since the beginning that made up the known universe. The term galaxy evolution also represents the models we form about the universe filled by the observed photons and the expansion since the big bang. At this point, the sizes, shapes and contents of all galaxies give us an idea about the formation and evolution of the universe.

Detailed Definition:

Galaxy evolution is a term used to understand the structure of the universe and the ongoing formation processes by comparing the morphology, brightness and content of galaxies with each other. The term galaxy evolution here studies galaxies in four main groups. These are Elliptical Galaxies, Lenticular Galaxies, Spiral Galaxies, and Irregular galaxies. The evolution process of galaxies in these four groups is examined under three main headings. These are Passive evolution (The state where the galaxy does not interact with any other galaxy [interactions or mergers] and thus does not produce star formations.), Interactions and Mergers (The state in which galaxies are affected by interacting with other galaxies), Secular Evolution (Situation in which processes by internal changes of galaxies affect their colour, luminosity and shape.)

Etymology:

From Latin ‘Galaxias’ and From Latin ‘ēvolūtiōnis’ (Unrolling/Unfolding)

Sample Sentence(s):

Radio telescopes have played a pivotal role in the understanding of galactic evolution.’’

(Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology and Dark Energy. (2018, May 30). Public Website. 

https://www.skatelescope.org/galaxyevolution/)

‘’Understanding how black holes shape their host galaxies is part of the study of galactic structure and evolution.’’

(Galaxy Formation and Evolution | Center for Astrophysics. (n.d.). https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-formation-and-evolution)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Évolution de la galaxie

German:

Galaxienentwicklung

Polish:

Ewolucja galaktyki

Swedish:

Utveckling av galaxer

Turkish:

Galaksi Evrimi

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.britannica.com/science/galaxy/Evolution-of-galaxies-and-quasars

https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/science/galaxies.html

https://www.skatelescope.org/galaxyevolution/

https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/research/topic/galaxy-formation-and-evolution

https://sites.astro.caltech.edu/~george/ay20/eaa-galevol.pdf

https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/E/evolution+of+galaxies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rdd9KAUcvgQ&ab_channel=TakayukiSaitoh

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WtvU4Xn2UE&ab_channel=CaltechAstro


Galaxy Merger

(Last edited: Saturday, 30 September 2023, 8:22 PM)
Source: https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

Source: https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

Short Definition:

A galaxy merger is the phenomenon of two or more galaxies colliding with each other, resulting in the formation of a new, enlarged galaxy.

Detailed Definition:

A galaxy merger occurs when two or more galaxies collide with each other, leading to the creation of a larger galaxy. Galaxy mergers are the most violent type of galaxy interaction. When a collision of several galaxies occurs, the stars and dark matter in each of them become affected, which has influence on both the orbits of the stars and the shape of the newly formed galaxy. 

During a merger, an increase in star formation can be observed, as the friction interaction of gas and dust contributes to the raise of energy in the resulting system. Galaxy mergers provide astronomers with the merger rate, which is a fundamental measurement of galaxy evolution and sheds some light on how galaxies have increased in size over time.

Etymology:

merge - Latin mergere"to dip, dip in, immerse, plunge"

galaxy - Late Latin galaxias - Greek galaxías

Sample Sentence(s):

Galaxy mergers can be simulated in computers, to learn more about galaxy formation.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: Fusion de galaxies

German: Galaxienfusion

Polish: Fuzja galaktyk, połączenie się galaktyk

Swedish: Galaxsammanslagning


Links to Videos/Articles:

https://www.eso.org/public/images/1016-galaxy_formation_merger/

https://www.thoughtco.com/interacting-galaxies-have-interesting-results-3072045

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4disyKG7XtU