Monday, 22 April 2024, 7:33 AM
Site: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University
Course: UNIVERSEH: The European Space University (UNIVERSEH)
Glossary: Dictionary of Space Concepts
V

Venus

(Last edited: Monday, 2 October 2023, 7:39 PM)
Source: Hecht, M. (2012, June 5). Venus Transit. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/76858203@N04/23105554654

Source: Hecht, M. (2012, June 5). Venus Transit. flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/76858203@N04/23105554654


Definition:

Venus is the planet with the second closest orbit to the Sun.

Venus is our inner neighbor in space in the Solar System. It is a celestial body located just 40 million kilometers far from the Earth. Venus resembles the earth in the main parameters: size, mass, density and internal structure almost match.


Etymology:

In Roman mythology (= ancient stories), the goddess (= female god) of beauty and love.


Translations:
  • French: Vénus (fem.) [ve.nys]
  • German: Venus (fem.) [ˈveːnʊs]
  • Polish: Wenus [ˈvɛ.nus]
  • Portuguese: Vênus (fem.) [ˈvẽ.nus]
  • Russian: Венера [vɛˈnɛrə]
  • Swedish: Venus

Volcano

(Last edited: Monday, 2 October 2023, 7:45 PM)

Image:

Image: Source: https://www.dw.com/en/volcanic-eruptions-can-cool-the-planet/a-40727123

Image: Source: https://www.dw.com/en/volcanic-eruptions-can-cool-the-planet/a-40727123

Short Definition:

A volcano is a hill or mountain with a hole where lava, rocks, or gas may be seen erupting from a planet or moon's interior.

Detailed Definition:

A crack in the earth's crust through which substances such as lava, steam, ashes, etc. are released continually or sporadically. Volcanoes are known to exist on the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the moon Io of Jupiter. Only two of these bodies currently have active volcanoes: Earth and Io. However, Venus or Europa, the moon of Jupiter, may have volcanoes erupting.

Etymology:

Volcano comes from the Latin Vulcanus, which is the name of the fire god.

Sample Sentence(s):

The volcano's lava was pouring down the mountainside.

On the seabed of Jupiter's moon Europa, there has been volcanic activity.

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French: volcan

German: Vulkan

Polish: wulkan

Swedish: vulkan

Links to Videos/Articles:

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/topic/volcanoes

https://chandra.harvard.edu/press/10_releases/press_081810.html


W

White Dwarf

(Last edited: Monday, 2 October 2023, 7:46 PM)

Image/Video/Audio:

Image/Video/Audio: Picture: A white dwarf Image/Video/Audio  Source: File:White  dwarf.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (2011, April 5).  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_dwarf.jpg

Image/Video/Audio: Picture: A white dwarf Image/Video/Audio Source: File:White dwarf.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (2011, April 5). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_dwarf.jpg

Short Definition:

White dwarfs, or cold stars, is a term often used to describe stars in the final stages of their evolution. These stars, which lose their energy sources and cannot perform fusion reactions, are the stars that tend to squeeze into themselves due to the gravitational law. This phenomenon was firstly discovered by the British astronomer 'William Herschel' in 1783.

Detailed Definition:

As one of the densest stellar remnants in space, white dwarfs are stars that have run out of most of their nuclear fuel and tend to collapse inwards. These stars, which are relatively Earth-sized and composed entirely of carbon and oxygen mass, are less than 1.4 solar masses when their cores are stable, but they tend to suffer constant heat and radiation loss because they do not undergo any fusion process. According to NASA's calculations, the core temperatures of white dwarfs can reach up to 100,000 Kelvin. Apart from the carbon and oxygen mass that make up their core, their envelope are surrounded by thin helium and in some cases hydrogen atoms.

Etymology:

White - from Proto-Indo-European (ḱweydós)

Dwarf - from Proto-Germanic (dwergaz)

(white - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/white)

(dwarf - Wiktionary. (n.d.). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dwarf)

Sample Sentence(s):

‘’White dwarfs evolve from stars with an initial mass of up to three or four solar masses or even possibly higher.’’

(The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). White dwarf star | Definition, Size, Mass, Life Cycles, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/white-dwarf-star)

‘’White dwarfs reach this incredible density because they are collapsed so tightly that their electrons are smashed together, forming what is called "degenerate matter.’’

(Dobrijevic, D., & Tillman, N. T. (2022, March 4). White dwarfs: Facts about the dense stellar remnants. Space.com. https://www.space.com/23756-white-dwarf-stars.html)

Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages:

French:

Naine blanche

German:

Weißer Zwerg

Polish:

Biały karzeł

Swedish:

Vit dvärg

Turkish:

Beyaz Cüce

Links to Videos/Articles:

Dobrijevic, D., & Tillman, N. T. (2022, March 4). White dwarfs: Facts about the dense stellar remnants. Space.com. https://www.space.com/23756-white-dwarf-stars.html

Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell. (2017, May 4). The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsN1LglrX9s

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). White dwarf star | Definition, Size, Mass, Life Cycles, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/white-dwarf-star

White Dwarfs. (2021, May 4). Science. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/white-dwarfs


Y

Yuri Gagarin

(Last edited: Monday, 28 August 2023, 12:34 PM)
Wikipedia Year: (n.d.) Yuri Gagarin - 1961-04-12. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/vi/7/7f/Yurigagarin-1961-04-12.jpg

Wikipedia Year: (n.d.) Yuri Gagarin - 1961-04-12. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved May 29, 2023, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/vi/7/7f/Yurigagarin-1961-04-12.jpg

 

Definitions


Short Definition

Yuri Gagarin was a Soviet cosmonaut and the first human to travel into space. On April 12, 1961, aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft, Gagarin completed a single orbit around the Earth, marking a significant milestone in human space exploration. His flight lasted 108 minutes and made him an international symbol of space exploration and achievement.

Detailed Definition
Yuri Gagarin (1934 - 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut and the first human to journey into space. In 1961, he became the first human to travel into space aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft. His flight lasted just under two hours, during which he orbited the Earth once. Gagarin's historic achievement made him an international celebrity and a symbol of Soviet scientific and technological prowess. 


Etymology

The surname "Gagarin" is derived from the Russian word "gagary," which means "cuckoo."


Sample Sentence(s)

1. Gagarin's flight came at a time when the United States and the Soviet Union were competing for technological supremacy in space. 

David, L. Year: 2012 First Man in Space: Yuri Gagarin's Historic Vostok 1 Flight. Space.com Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://www.space.com/16159-first-man-in-space.html

2. The Gagarin crater on the Moon is named after Yuri Gagarin, in recognition of his achievement as the first human to journey into space.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
Yuri Gagarin

German
Yuri Gagarin

Italian
Jurij Gagarin

Polish
Jurij Gagarin

Swedish
Jurij Gagarin

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages

Russian: Юрий Гагарин

Links to Videos/Articles:


Britannica Year: (n.d.). Yuri Gagarin. Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved Date: May 29, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Yuri-Gagarin

BBC News. 2021. Yuri Gagarin: The first man in space - BBC News. Retrieved Jun 12. 2024 from https://youtu.be/KANuFlelQ5k.


Z

Zenith

(Last edited: Monday, 28 August 2023, 12:33 PM)

Media
Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003.

Media Zenith & Nadir, DJ Jeffery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2003.



Definitions

Short Definition
Zenith is a point on the celestial sphere that is directly above the observer. The zenith is diametrically opposite to the nadir.

Detailed Definition
Zenith is determined by the direction of the gravitational force at particular point on Earth. Typically, the term implies astronomical zenith, that is, the point at which the imaginary line drawn from the geometrical centre of the Earth through the observer intersects with the celestial sphere. The angular distance from zenith is called the zenith distance of the celestial body. The zenith and the nadir form two poles of the horizon.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin cenit, from Arabic samt (ar-ra's)“path (over the head)”

Sample Sentences

Glowing with astral turquoise, the comet dashingly passed zenith and started decelerating as it was approaching the horizon.


Translations of Terms/Concepts into Partner Languages

French
le zénith

German
der Zenit

Italian
lo zenit

Polish
zenit

Swedish
zenit

Additional Translations of Terms/Concepts into Other Languages


Russian
зенит

Ukrainian
зенiт


Links to Videos/Articles:

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (1998, July 20). Zenith | astronomy. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved [ 06.14.2023 ], from https://www.britannica.com/science/zenith-astronomy

Zenith | COSMOS. (n.d.). Retrieved [ 06.20.2023 ], from https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/z/Zenith